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Monday 20th of May 2019
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Lack of knowledge is different from lack of realization

He should be told that he does not know the truth. He has not recognized the Almighty. He has not understood the system of recompense in the Hereafter. Lack of knowledge doesn’t mean that you close your eyes to any forthcoming information. Denial is justified when you are certain that there is no god. If a person who is born blind says that sun does not exist he should be told that the fact is he has never seen a shining sun. He does not recognize it. He should say I know nothing about the sun.

Actually this stance of the infidels is itself sufficient to defect them. They are actually giving a proof of their double ignorance. One is that they are ignorant of reality – secondly they are ignorant of their ignorance.

“Denouncing the sun is denouncing oneself. It seems the one who is denouncing is himself blind.”

(Persian Couplet)

In Doubt

The person who is denying faith must be told for example that, ‘at present you are not certain that there is no God.’ You are just making a conjecture. Doesn’t your reason tell you that probably the believers are right and there is indeed a wise and powerful God? And that reward and punishment is a reality? And it is possible that what the Prophets had said was truth?

If he says that he is certain there is no god you can be sure he is lying. He doest not want to be guided. Such a person should be left alone. But if he deals with justice and says truthfully: Yes! There is a possibility of the existence of God. It is not impossible. He must be told:

If you cannot find proof you cannot say that there is no proof

This is a rational principle. Failure to find a proof does not prove its non-existence. If one cannot find thing one cannot say that, that particular does not exist. It is possible that he has not searched in a proper way. Such a person should say: “The thing may be there but I could not find it.”

Ray of Hope

If the disbelievers confess his ignorance you can say that there is a ray of hope. It is no possible for the light of faith to enter his heart. Now he has realized that he has doubt concerning this matter. He can remove his doubt by study and investigation. Based on human native every person is hungry for knowledge, intelligence and success. If he realizes this hunger he would strive to remove the hunger of doubt and thirst of knowledge by certainty and knowledge. He gradually achieves the states of Ilmul Yaqeen (certain knowledge), Ainul Yaqeen (eye of certainty) and Haqqul Yaqeen (reality of Certainty). And finally he achieves the grade of human perfection. If Allah gives tawfeeq he is not slothful in striving on this way. He tries cross each obstacle and moves ahead. (Ilmul Yaqeen is a complete Knowledge of a thing, Ainul Yaqeen implies seeing something with the inner eye and being certain of it and Haqqul Yaqeen comes after this and it is the last stage. That is certainty that is absolute)

O pampered child! Your doubt is a strange kind of doubt, which does not fly till the garden of certainty. O Son! Every doubt is thirty for certainty. It struggles to quench its thirst at least. And when it becomes knowledge it begins the search for certainty. Know that knowledge is always in search for certainty. And certainty desires the eye of certainty. When this is also acquired it becomes desirous of Haqqul Yaqeen.

Difference in the Understanding capacity of Human beings and Animals

This is in fact, the difference between men and animals. Man is concerned about his conditions. He confesses his ignorance and doubt. Man is superior to animals in this matter. Animals are very simple minded. He remains unconcerned of his ignorance. He doesn’t even know whether he is having any understanding or not. Where as human beings have superior intelligence. It is known as compound intelligence in our terminology. A Human being understands what he knows and what he is ignorant of, while the animal has no desire to know more. Man is always in search of increasing his knowledge and intelligence. Thus there is a difference between the understanding of animals and human beings. The human beings have a compound understanding. Secondly the perception of animals does not urge them to obtain more knowledge and increase their capabilities, while man does not want to have limited knowledge.

Disbelievers are like Beasts

The above discussion tells us that if the deniers of truth do not aware of their ignorance and do not take steps to remove it, they are like the beasts. They do not have more intelligence than animals. Let us present some verses of Quran to support our assertion:

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يَتَمَتَّعُونَ وَيَأْكُلُونَ كَمَا تَأْكُلُ الْأَنْعَامُ وَالنَّارُ مَثْوًى لَّهُمْ

“And those who disbelieve enjoy themselves and eat as the beasts eat, and the fire is their abode.”

(Surah Muhammad 47:12)

Neither are they aware that they are not enjoying the bounties of Allah, nor they recognize the creator of these bounties. They are not even concerned about the aim of the creation of these things and own creation.

كَمَثَلِ الْحِمَارِ يَحْمِلُ أَسْفَارًا

“Is as the likeness of the ass bearing books.”

(Surah Juma 62:5)

The Jews were given the Jorah but they did not act upon it.

فَمَثَلُهُ كَمَثَلِ الْكَلْبِ

“So his parable is as the parable of the dog.”

(Surah Araaf 7:176)

It is always barking against truth in every condition. As far as his inner being is concerned, he is an animal. If the infidels become deceitful and start conspiring they become like satans.

وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَا لِكُلِّ نِبِيٍّ عَدُوًّا شَيَاطِينَ الإِنسِ وَالْجِنِّ

“And thus did We make for every prophet an enemy, the Shaitans from among men and jinn.”

(Surah Anam 6:112)

People who act like satan will be included with the shaitan in the Hereafter.

Cure of Disbelief in Quranic Verses

Whatever we have discussed so far regarding the cure of disbelief, it has been mentioned in the verses of Quran and the tradition of Ahle Bayt (a.s.). For example pay attention to the following verses:

وَقَالُوا مَا هِيَ إِلَّا حَيَاتُنَا الدُّنْيَا نَمُوتُ وَنَحْيَا وَمَا يُهْلِكُنَا إِلَّا الدَّهْرُ وَمَا لَهُم بِذَلِكَ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَظُنُّونَ

“And they say: There is nothing but our life in this world; we live and die and nothing destroys us but time, and they have no knowledge of that; they only conjecture.”

(Surah Jathiya 45:24)

“We live and die” implies that “some of us live and some of us are born.” And the system of births and deaths goes on. It may also mean that “initially we are dead in the form of sperm and later we become alive.”

This ayat has pointed out towards compounded ignorance. That is, in spite of their lack of knowledge they consider themselves knowledgeable and issue a denial. However, some disbelievers are not compounded ignorant. They are in simple ignorance. They are aware of their ignorance. Such disbelievers are mentioned in the following verses:

وَإِذَا قِيلَ إِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ وَالسَّاعَةُ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهَا قُلْتُم مَّا نَدْرِي مَا السَّاعَةُ إِن نَّظُنُّ إِلَّا ظَنًّا وَمَا نَحْنُ بِمُسْتَيْقِنِينَ

“And when it was said, Surely the promise of Allah is true and as for the hour, there is no doubt about it, you said: We do not know what the hour is; we do not think (that it will come to pass) save a passing thought, and we are not at all sure.”

(Surah Jathiya 45:32)

بَلْ كَذَّبُواْ بِمَا لَمْ يُحِيطُواْ بِعِلْمِهِ وَلَمَّا يَأْتِهِمْ تَأْوِيلُهُ كَذَلِكَ كَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ

“Nay, they reject that of which they have no comprehensive knowledge, and the final sequel of it has not yet come to them; even thus did those before them reject (the truth)”

(Surah Yunus 10:39)

بَلِ ادَّارَكَ عِلْمُهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ بَلْ هُمْ فِي شَكٍّ مِّنْهَا بَلْ هُم مِّنْهَا عَمِونَ

“Nay, their knowledge respecting the hereafter is slight and hasty; nay, they are in doubt about it; nay, they are quite blind to it.”

(Surah Naml 27:66)

قُلْ هَلْ عِندَكُم مِّنْ عِلْمٍ فَتُخْرِجُوهُ لَنَا إِن تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلاَّ الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ أَنتُمْ إَلاَّ تَخْرُصُونَ

“Say: Have you any knowledge with you so you should bring it forth to us? You only follow a conjecture and you only tell lies.”

(Surah Anam 6:148)

That is whatever they are based on their whims and fancies and absolutely false.

These verses indicate that we must inform such people who are in doubt and lack knowledge so that they can also learn the true facts.

Taking Precaution is a sensible thing to do

Knowing Allah, the Prophet and the Hereafter are the most important matter for human beings. If we do not have faith in them we shall indeed be doomed to perdition. Even if one has a slight expectation that lack of belief will destroy him he can as a precautionary measure bring faith in them. Reason dictates that one should take all possible precautions to avoid future risks. Even a slight chance of expected danger should oblige us to learn the articles of faith. Now the disbeliever has no other excuse.

The Holy Quran says,

أَلَا يَظُنُّ أُولَئِكَ أَنَّهُم مَّبْعُوثُونَ

“Do not these think that they shall be raised again. For a mighty day?”

(Surah Mutaffefeen 83:4 – 5)

That is if they are not certain about it at least they can imagine it might be true. And reason says that even if there is a slightest chance of danger you must be careful and take every precaution to keep yourself safe. You must obtain Marefat (recognition) even if you feel there is a danger to you in case you do not accept faith. Not only Marefat you must act upon all such things that can bring your doom if you omit them. For example one who cheats while selling (weighing short) something shall have a severe chastisement (Surah Mutaffefeen 83:2)

The style of Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (a.s.)

An atheist by the name of Abdul Malik came to Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (a.s.). Imam (a.s.) said to him,

“Do you know there are places on the earth and beneath it?”

“Yes”, he replied,

“Have you ever been below the earth?”

“No.”

“Do you know what is below the earth?”

“I don’t know but I feel there is nothing below it.”

“Have you been to the sky?”

“No.”

Imam (a.s.) said,

“When you have never been to the west or east and never traveled to the sky or blow the earth, how can you say that they have no creator? You are denying without seeing it and saying there is nothing below the earth. When a sensible person is ignorant of something, does he deny its existence altogether?”

The atheist said, “No one spoke to me like you before.”

Imam (a.s.) asked,

“Thus do you feel that there could be something below the earth?”

The atheist confesses his doubt and said, “It is possible.” When he confessed his doubt Imam (a.s.) began to teach him. He taught him to ponder upon the perfect system of the universe and its gigantic proportions. The details of which are available in concerned books. Anyway, the person accepted faith and became a believer in Allah.

As you see first Imam (a.s.) made him aware of his ignorance. When he had come out of his compounded ignorance he had given further knowledge by Imam (a.s.).

A Good Tree

The Almighty Allah speaks of a Good Tree and the evil tree in the following verses of Surah Ibrahim:

أَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ ضَرَبَ اللّهُ مَثَلاً كَلِمَةً طَيِّبَةً كَشَجَرةٍ طَيِّبَةٍ أَصْلُهَا ثَابِتٌ وَفَرْعُهَا فِي السَّمَاء تُؤْتِي أُكُلَهَا كُلَّ حِينٍ بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهَا وَيَضْرِبُ اللّهُ الأَمْثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ وَمَثلُ كَلِمَةٍ خَبِيثَةٍ كَشَجَرَةٍ خَبِيثَةٍ اجْتُثَّتْ مِن فَوْقِ الأَرْضِ مَا لَهَا مِن قَرَارٍ

“Have you not considered how Allah sets forth a parable of a good word (being) like a good tree, whose root is firm and whose branches are in heaven, Yielding its fruit in every season by the permission of its Lord? And Allah sets forth parables for men that they may be mindful. And the parable of an evil word is as an evil tree pulled up from the earth’s surface; it has no stability.

(Surah Ibrahim 24 – 26).

Leaves, Branches and the Fruits of the Tree of Belief

If the light of belief illuminates the heart of a person, the tree of his faith gets branches. That is he has faith on the prophets. Especially he has faith in the Last Prophet (s.a.) and also in the twelve successors (a.s.) of the Prophet (s.a.). He believes in the Hereafter, Paradise and Hell.

The tree of belief has leaves too. That is charity, chastity, courage, justice, magnanimity, patience, Allah’s satisfaction, reliance etc. Thus all the good qualities are the leaves of the tree of belief.

The tree of belief also bears fruits. The bounties of Allah continue to descend upon the believer. The tree continues to bloom and fructify. Its roots become stronger by the day. Increase in faith and action brings increase in divine rewards. Allah’s proximity is gained. At last he is rewarded with Paradise where he shall reside forever.

Consequence of Disbelief

The consequence of disbelief is that when a man enters the darkness of infidelity and polytheism he denies all the beliefs of prophethood, wilayat, Qiyamat, reward, punishment and all true principles. Evil traits like greed of wealth, miserliness, jealousy, injustice, defalcation, and fornication take root in him and begin to commit all these bad deeds.

Denials of true principles of belief are the branches of the tree of disbelief, bad morals are its leaves and depravity and divine retribution are its fruits.

Disbelief is a negative affair. It is due to absence of a factor. For example ignorance is due to lack of knowledge. That is why it has neither a root nor branches and no fruit is derived from it that could please one in the world or the Hereafter.

Belief and Disbelief

This discussion clearly shows that disbelief and belief are opposite of each and are contradictory traits. One is knowledge, the other is ignorance. One is acceptance, the other is denial. One is good moral and the other is filled with vices. One is the basis of good deed and the other leads to sinful acts. One is thankfulness of bounties and the other is thanklessness. One is contentment, the other is greed. One is charity the other is miserliness. One is generosity the other is jealousy. One is courage the other is cowardice.

A Believer does no evil and an Infidel does no good

According to our statement a believer cannot do anything but good and the unbeliever only commits evil. If someone says, “Some unbelievers also do good things and believers are also prove to do evil sometimes?”

The reply to this is as follow:

The unbeliever never does something that is basically good. Even if he does a good work it is apparently good. If a disbeliever gives some amount in charity we must check if had obtained that money in a legitimate matter? Then we should see if he is spending it in consonance with Islamic Shariah and reason? Whether he is not committing Israaf Shariah and reason? Whether he is not committing Israaf (Sqaudering spending more than needed). Whether he is doing tabzeer (needless spending)? (Israaf implies spending more than necessary and tabzeer is totally needless expenditure. For example, spending in some haraam act). We should also see if he is doing if for Allah or for some other benefit? If he is doing it for profit, fame or show off it is not charity and it is certainly not a good deed.

For example the Makkans used to fill up their coffers from public funds and Baitul Maal (Islamic Treasury). Then they used to gift a lac or two lac good coins to a poet who composed Qasida (panegyrics) in their praise. They never intended to do goods. It was for gaining fame and popularity and consolidation of their throne does it amount to be a good act?

If we suppose that an unbeliever has given charity as a gesture of kindness then the Almighty Allah gives increase in his wealth or removes some of his difficulty. Or He may reduce his punishment in the Hereafter. In brief we can say that the pure good deed of an unbeliever does not go waste. He certainly gets its recompense in this world or the Hereafter. For example it is well known about Hatim Tai that he would indeed be sent to Hell for his disbelief, but the Hellfire shall not burn him.

As far as the bad deeds of a believer is concerned. Actually a believer never commits band deeds. He never commits a sin while denying Allah and the accounting of the day of recompense. He happens to commit a sin by chance, due to the overpowering of selfish desires and satanic instigation. Then due to his belief he feels deep remorse for it. He repents and seeks forgiveness.

Yes, if a person called a believer commits a sin but does not regret it or seeks divine forgiveness for the same he can be called a Muslim but never a Momin (Believer). Belief has not entered his heart it is just confined to verbal utterance.

The Almighty Allah says,

قَالَتِ الْأَعْرَابُ آمَنَّا قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُوا وَلَكِن قُولُوا أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ الْإِيمَانُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ

“The dwellers of the desert say: We believe. Say: You do not believe but say, We submit; and faith has not yet entered into your hearts.”

(Surah Hujarat 49:14)

Denial of Prophethood

We have already discussed the denial of the origin of creation and the Hereafter and also suggested cure. Another kind of disbelief is the denial of the prophethood of the Prophets. For example there is a religion called Brahmanism in India. They believe in God, but they say that human intellect is sufficient to seek the truth salvation.

They should be told that they are denying the Prophets. And this denial of yours is itself contradicting to your conscience and reason. You cannot say with certainty that the prophets spoke falsehood. You certainly think that it is possible that the news that the prophets gave regarding the salvation and doom, recompense of good and bad deeds, information regarding the Hereafter etc, is all true. May be it is the reality. You didn’t intend to bear the responsibility of divine commandments. You wanted to follow your carnal desires and remain unfettered without seeking the truth. Without making any investigation you have denied the message of the Prophets. (As we have proved in the proceeding pages to deny something without having certainty is foolishness).

Once the denier accepts that his denial is not justified we can present further arguments. We can then prove the correctness and necessity of the message of the prophets. Such arguments are presented in the books of Ilmul Kalam (theology).

The general arguments proving the need of prophets are given Allamah Majlisi Haqqul Yaqeen and Kifayatul Moheddin. Let us see the following Quranic verse at this point:

وَمَا قَدَرُواْ اللّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ إِذْ قَالُواْ مَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ عَلَى بَشَرٍ مِّن شَيْءٍ

“And they do not assign to Allah the attributes due to Him when they say: Allah has not revealed anything to a mortal.”

(Surah Anam 6:91)

They did not recognize Allah!

Those who say that Allah has not sent any messengers have actually failed to recognize Allah. They do not recognize the God who has given everything that man needs. Thus is it possible that Allah acted miserly in the matter of sending the prophets? The greatest want of man is that someone makes him know the aim of his creation. That someone distinguishes for him the path of fortune and misfortune and also inform him of his future. Such guidance is needed more than anything else. It is more important than the need for fingernails and eyelashes!

Benefit of a Guide

The Almighty Allah has given human beings such capabilities that he gets a proper guide and instructor he can excel in any field. He can learn the secrets of the material world and he can obtain knowledge of the unseen. He can get Marefat (recognition) of Allah and reach upto the level of Haqqul Yaqeen (Absolute Certainty). Then how can it be possible that Allah would disregard sending a teacher of divine laws? While the unending spring could benefit the human in this way?

Aql (Intellect) in isolation is subdued by desires

Is it correct to say that intellect itself is sufficient? Every sensible person knows that his intellect is limited. The things regarding whom he is ignorant are limitless. He can discriminate between good and evil due to his animal desires. He cannot take a right decision due to habits, customs and blind following. He can have mistaken notions and deny the truth. He begins to consider good as evil and evil as good. Man needs another life to obtain salvation. In order to correct the mistakes of this life he must know about his next life. But he doe not know about this life. If the Almighty Allah does not convey the information regarding the next life through His prophet and if He does not teach man the way to attain salvation in the next life it would amount to be an injustice on man. While, the Almighty Allah is pure of every type of injustice and deficiency.

In other words, just as the eye cannot see in darkness without an external source of light in the same way man cannot distinguish good and evil on the basis of his intellect alone.

Denial of the Messengership of the Last Prophet (s.a.)

Like Jews and Christians, those who deny the Holy Prophethood of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) are actually acting against their conscience and their intellects. If they are just and do not follows others blindly or do not harbour unjustified malice the following verse of Quran is sufficient for them:

وَمَا كُنتَ تَتْلُو مِن قَبْلِهِ مِن كِتَابٍ وَلَا تَخُطُّهُ بِيَمِينِكَ إِذًا لَّارْتَابَ الْمُبْطِلُونَ

“And you did not recite before it any book, nor did you transcribe one with your right hand, for then could those who say untrue things have doubted.”

(Surah Ankabut 29:48)

That they began to say that the Quran contains thing made up by himself or it is taken from other books.

It is a well-established historical fact that the Holy Prophet (s.a.) did not receive traditional education in any school neither did he have a human teacher. In the initial part of his life he remained in Makkah and hardly went out of it. During this period he undertook two journeys to Sham. One of it was during his boyhood when he accompanied his Uncle Abu Talib. The second one was when he was twenty-five years old he went as a business representative of Khatija. This time Maysara accompanied him. The life of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was an open book for the Makkans. It was known to all that he could neither read nor write. In these circumstances he brought a book from his Lord. And the book was such that it was based on complete information of Marefat of Allah, the best morals, worship, business transactions, politics and civil admisnistartion etc. Apart from this it also contains prophecies that were proved true later. From the aspect of eloquence and dictionthis book compelled the most eloquent nation to admit helplessness before it. Another thing is that from the beginning to the end there is no contradiction in this book. Thus a lot can be written on this topic. To learn about the miraculous aspect of Quran please refer to books of Ilmul Kalam and Quranic exegesis, especially the Tafseerul Meezan (volume one).

As far as the miracles of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) are concerned they are calculated to be more than four thousand. Regarding this subject please refer to the sixth volume of Beharul Anwaar, Anisul Aalaam and Allamah Majlisis Hayatul quloob (Volume Two).

Neither my beloved has been to a school nor he has learnt to write.

He understood the whole problem with a solitary glance and become the teacher of thousands of schools.

Denial of Wilayat and Imamat

The tweleve Imams: Hazrat Amirul Momineen Ali (a.s.), Hasan, Husain, Ali Zainul Aabedeen, Muhammad Baqir, Ja’far Sadiq, Moosa Kadhim, Ali Rida, Muhammad Taqi, Ali Naqi, Hasan Askari and Mahdi Sahibuzzaman (a.s.) are the true successors of the Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa (s.a.). The tyrant caliphs of Bani Ummayah and Bani Abbas compelled the people to deny the Imamat of these Imams because their jealousy and desire for temporal power. The cure for doubts regarding Imamt and wilayat is that we study the books on this subject. For example in Arabic we have Sayyid Murtada’s Sahif, Sayyid Ibne Tawoos Taraif. Similarly in Persian we have Kifayatul Mohedden. These books contain the traditions of Ahle Sunnat. To remove doubts and misunderstanding one can just say that the both the Shia and Sunnis are accepted the following tradition of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said,

“I leave among you two weighty things, the book of Allah and my progeny. If you attach to them you shall never go astray.”

Sayyid Bahrani in Gayatul Maraam quotes the above tradition through 39 Chains of Sunni narrators and 82 Chains of Shia narrators.

In the same way there are other traditions also that are recorded in the Sunni as well as Shia sources from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). These traditions even mention the names and special characteristics of the Holy Imams (a.s.). They also contain the fact that the last of these Imams (a.s.) shall be Mahdi and he will have a prolonged occultation. There shall be large-scale mischief and corruption during this occultation. However, after he reappears he will fill the earth with justice and equity just as it had been filled with injustice and oppression.

More than a thousand traditions have been recorded on the subject of Imam and Wilayat. Please refer to the book Ghayatul Muraam regarding this.



source : QALBE SALEEM/Shaheede Mehraab Ayatullah-ul-Uzma Al-Haaj Sayed Abdul Husain Dastghaib Shirazi (r.a.)
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