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Monday 17th of June 2019
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MAHDISM IN QUR'ANIC EXEGESIS

The paper attempts to reveal the views of Muslim of scholars with regard to the concept of Mahdism from Sunni and Shiite perspective. On the first part we will discuss the views of Muslim exegetes toward the textual evidences which directly deal with aspects of Mahdism. We will trace it both from etymological and terminological aspect and then see their interpretation pertinent to the underlying concept. Afterward, we will discuss the concept of Mahdism, characters, and time of emergence. Moreover, we will also expose the concept of justice which becomes the salient features of al-mahdi which will emerge in the midst of endless conflict of humanity. In addition, the paper attempts to offer alternatives of an imamate government in response to the failure of man made modern system such as capitalism, socialism, humanism, as well as democratization in a way to bring people out from darkness toward happiness, peace, and justice in the community. Since the arrival of Mahdi is a part of invisible thing which is beyond the perception of mind, then, we should not heavily rely on literal concept rather the value of justice as appeared in characters of Imam al-Mahdi should be actualized within the personality of just Muslim revivalists such as Imam Khomeini of Shiite and Hasan al-Banna from Sunni. In this context, we will focus on the concept of leadership based on the divine order which could be considered as noble efforts to respond toward the crisis globalization.

Concept of Mahdism
It is a part of the belief that al-mahdi will emerge to lead the ummah on the basis of justice as demonstrated by the Prophet (pbuh) in his mission to save the communities on the basis of divine guidance. In fact, the Qur\'an does not mention the word al-mahdi in explicit way rather it comes from the derived word hada yahudu (lit. guidance) such as hudan li al-mutaqin (guidance for those who have God consciousness), innaka la tahdi man ahbabta (you cannot give guidance to whom you wish). It is only the hadith of the Prophet (pbuh) which deals of the underlying concept with the use of different terms.

The common use of the term is mahdi al-muntazar and the word al-mahdi itself is the object noun (ism al-mafÑul) to indicate a person who has been granted with special guidance from God and His Messenger through the special selection. That guidance no one can share as it is the prerogative of Allah. Al-mahdi will illuminate the hearts of individuals and he could see what others could not see it and understand what others could not do.

Muslim scholars are of the view that Imam al-Mahdi is the good news (al-mubashar) in which the person never claim himself as a new Prophet but as his follower. He is in the category of right guided caliph as covered in the hadith that says,

You have to be governed with my way of live and the way of those caliphs who have been give the right guidance and cling to it firmly.

It is agreeable that mahdi comes from the family of the Prophet (pbuh) who will become a just ruler (Íakim al-Ñadil) and emerges at the time when the ummah desperately needs him to revive the sunnah of the Prophet, eliminate atrocities, and establish justice.

The Qur\'an gives indications on the Mahdism with different interpretation in the hands of Muslim exegetes. The word al-mahdi which literally means the place or source of guidance, in fact, there is no single verse pertaining to that matter rather it just mentions its derivation in more than fifty six places. Muslim scholars in the field of exegesis are at loggerhead with regard to the character as well as the place of their emergence. However, they come to an agreement that al-mahdi has the character of justice which will dominate the whole world when crisis and conflict could not be halted. The followings are textual evidences in the Qur\'an with regard to the emergence of Imam al-Mahdi as covered both in Sunni and Shiite literature. Scholars of Qur\'anic exegesis give exposition not on the verses which are directly related to it.

In the verse related to the belief and invisible world which says,
Who believe in the Unseen, are steadfast in prayer, and spend out of what We have provided for them,
On the first part the verse is related with the verse aforementioned pertaining to the exposure of al-muttaqun (lit. those who have God consciousness). According to al-Razi Allah highly praises those who protect themselves with piety and believe in the invisible thing (al-ghayb). They are required to think and make it as evident which caused them to believe in Allah\'s attributes, eschatology (al-akhirah), Prophethood (al-nubuwwah), and rules of the ShariÑah. In view of this, Allah gives the praise toward them in return.
However, al-Razi does not negate on the existing view of Shiite scholars who consider that the belief on the invisible being (al-ghayb) as stated in the word al-laÐina yu\'minuna bi al-ghayb is related with the emergence of Imam al-Mahdi. They support this view with another verse that says,

Allah has promised, to those among you who believe and work righteous deeds, that He will, of a surety, grant them in the land, inheritance (of power), as He granted it to those before them.
Apart from evident in the Qur\'an they also support their views with this Prophetic tradition,
If there is only another one day left in this world, definitely Allah will extend the duration with the arrival of a person from my family whose name is similar with my name in which the justice prevails as the injustice used to dominate before.

The other parts which is related with the emergence of al-mahdi can also be referred to this verse,
It is He Who hath sent His Messenger with Guidance and the Religion of Truth, to proclaim it over all religion, even though the Pagans may detest (it).
Again, al-Razi exegesis says that domination of Islam over other religions would take place due to the followings:
First, it ensures positive evidences as well as miraculous aspects. This is mainly related with the word of huwa al-laÐi arsala rasulahu bi al-huda (lit. He is the one who sent forth His Messenger with guidance). Secondly, this religion brings characters of the truth and comprehensiveness of the message to give perfection of human lives in this world and in the hereafter. This is the one as phrased in the word wa dini al-haq (truthfulness of religion). Thirdly, the position of Islam is superb and dominates other religions. This part is covered in the word liyuÐhirahu Ñala al-dini kullihi (to dominate over other religions).
Al-Razi gives certain analysis on the existence of other religions which flourish in other parts of the world. According to him, we have to see realistically that in fact there is no other religion more effective than Islam. It excels other religions in term of growth and expansion in most parts of the world. The Jewish religion and Christianity in Arab world for instance, were demise due to people conversion. Likewise, Zoroastrianism and paganism in non-Arab world were also abandoned such as in Turkey, Persia, and South East Asian countries. Secondly, one day the whole humanity will turn to Islam and no single religion remain. This is mainly based on the narration of Abu Hurayrah in which God promised to make Islam dominates over all other religions.

Al-Nisaburi gives similar emphasis in which the arrival of al-mahdi is to make the perfection of Islamic religion on earth. He refers to the sayings of Abu Hurayrah in which Allah gave the promise on the superiority of Islam on earth which will take place due to the arrival of al-mahdi and the coming down of the Prophet Isa from the heaven. According to al-Suda, at the time of arriving of al-mahdi there will not be any person except he embraces Islam. However, prior to the arrival of the two saviors of humanity, the history shows that many kings after the arrival of Islam they converted to this religion. Even, until then, there were many non-Muslims who later converted. This indicates the effectiveness of this religion to bring people out from darkness. This complies with the Prophesies given by the Prophet (pbuh) in which the traditions says,
This earth had been made corners where I could see the Eastern and Western parts. The authority of my ummah is the one as it has been made its corners.
Ibn Kathir regards that the emergence of al-mahdi is somehow linked with the verse,
To Allah belong the East and the West: whithersoever ye turn there is the presence of Allah. For Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing.

In his exegeses, Ibn Kathir says that Christians will be given severe sanction due to their transgression by humiliating the sakhrah where the Jews used to pray on it. Likewise, the Jews due to their committing bigger sins compared to what have been done by Christians will be humiliated. That will take place at the time of arrival of Imam al-Mahdi.
Now we will see the exposition of Muslim scholars in the field of exegesis and the relation with the arrival of al-mahdi as we refer it to this verse,
O ye who believe if any from among you turn back from his Faith, soon will Allah produce a people whom He will love as they will love Him, lowly with the Believers, mighty against the rejecters, fighting in the way of Allah, and never afraid of the reproaches of such as find fault. That is the Grace of Allah, which he will bestow on whom he pleaseth. And Allah encompasseth all, and he knoweth all things.
The issue is related with the word qawm (lit. nation) which brings about different interpretation. Some of them hold that it was addressed to companions who fought against apostasy. Others consider that the verse was addressed to ansar of Madinah. Even some of them regard that it was addressed to the Yemenis on the ground that when the verse was revealed the Prophet (pbuh) hinted to Abu Musa al-AshÑari. While Shiite scholars consider that the word qawm is related to the emergence of al-mahdi who is going to defeat other religions.
Arrival of al-Mahdi
One exegesis mentions about the time and place of emergence of Imam al-Mahdi. This is the verse in which it caused the belief on the arrival of Mahdism,

And among them are men who listen to thee, but in the end, when they go out from thee, they say to those who have received Knowledge, What is it he said just then? Such are men whose hearts Allah has sealed, and who follow their own lusts. But to those who receive Guidance, He increases the (light of) Guidance, and bestows on them their Piety and Restraint (from evil). Do they then only wait for the Hour, that it should come on them of a sudden? But already have come some tokens thereof, and when it (actually) is on them, how can they benefit then by their admonition?

Muslim exegetes in their exposition toward the above verses, some of them regard that the arrival of Mahdism is not related with the specific time and place rather they gave the symptoms with regard to his arrival. Again, their interpretation is based on different narration of the Prophetic tradition. Imam al-SuyuÏi (849-911H/1445-1505M) for instance, regards that arrival of Mahdi is preceded by number of symptoms as mentioned in this tradition, On the authority of Hudayfah that the Prophet (pbuh) said, my ummah will not get perished until the emergence of al-tamayuz, al-tamayul, and al-maqamiÑ. \'What al-tamayuz O the Messenger of Allah\', I asked. \'People demonstrated fanaticism (aÎabiyyah) in Islam after my death\', the Prophet said. Then, "What is al-tamayul", I asked. \'Turning into qiblah (direction of prayer toward the Ka\'bah) by violating its sanctity (hurmataha)\', the Prophet replied. Then, \'What is al-maqami\'? I asked again. \'Passing the news to make war\', he said.
In one Prophetic tradition, we found that the emergence of al-mahdi would take place in Damascus as reported by Ibn Majah on the authority of Abu Hurayrah who heard from the Prophet (pbuh) in which he said, When the bloodshed or killings take place between Muslims, it will come out the respected delegation (baÑthun min al-mawalÊ) from Damascus as the most courageous among the Arabs and the best of weaponry (ajwaduhum silahan). Through them God will assist this religion.
On the one hand we found that Muslim exegetes when they give interpretation of certain text of the Qur\'an which somehow gives indications on the arrival of al-mahdi, they refer to hadith of the Prophet (pbuh). The only one thing is that the arrival of al-mahdi would take place in the midst of crisis and sectarian conflict among Muslims due to the diversity of theological groupings. This is the authority of ÑAli b. Abi Ùalib in which he said,

The war will take place among people as if they make gold in the factory (fi al-maÑdan). Whenever it happens, let us not blame the Syrians (aÍl al-sham) rather just condemn their injustices. Allah will send the savior from the heaven (yursil al-Lah sayban min al-sama) to make them get sunk in the ocean (fa yugriquhum). Even if wild animals (al-thaÑalib) attack, they will be defeated. Allah will send a person from the family of the Prophet selected from twelve thousands people whenever they are less, and fifteen thousands whenever their authority is increasing. Their signs are the death on three banners and seven groups with their banners and each owner of the banner got the ambition in governance. They fight and kill each others and the people from al-Hashimi (family of the Prophet) will defeat them and Allah will return their unity and bounties. The situation will remain until the arrival of dajal.
In one place we found that the whole world will be affected with major crisis until the savior arrives as covered in the narration of Jubayr b. Nafir in which the Prophet (pbuh) said,

The inhabitants of the earth will be in crisis until the arrival members of the family of the Prophet and the ummah will be tested with severe punishment (bi al-rajf). If they return to God they will be repented and if they transgress, God will punish them with throwing (qadf), crush (al-maskh), and thunder (al-sawaiq). In one report it explicitly mentions about the word al-mahdi as narrated by Abu SaÑid al-Khudri in which the Prophet (pbuh) said, I give you the good news about al-mahdi in which Allah will send to my ummah at the time of crisis and earthquakes and, as a result, the earth will be full of justice and peace such as, before that, there was full of injustice and ruthlessness. All the inhabitants of the heavens and earth are in favor to divide the earth with peace. Then, a person enquired the Prophet, \'what is duhaha\'? The Prophet (pbuh) said, \'through equality among people and the heart of members of the ummah of Muhammad feel satisfied because of the justice was widely spread and until a caller said, \'whoever need the wealth there would not be anyone to stand up except only one person then he said, you meet the treasurer and said to him, \'in fact al-mahdi requires you to give me the wealth then the person said, \'I urge it and whenever he held it up and not willing to give he will be disappointed. Then, he said \'in fact I encourage a person from the ummah of Muhammad when he was unable to do it at the time of comfortable situation then he said, that person refused and he will be accepted. Then, it was said to him, \'I will not take anything that we gave him and the situation will be in that position within seven or eight or ninth years and there will not be any goodness afterward\'.
This is another hadith that directly talks about the al-mahdi as narrated by Abu SaÑid al-Khudri in which the Prophet (pbuh) said, Al-Mahdi will come out to my ummah within five or seven years, then, the sky will send down the rain in abundance and the earth will not store anything from the plantation. The wealth will be in abundance, then, a person comes and say, O mahdi give me give me, his cloth was spread to take the amount that he could carry\'.
Again, Abu SaÑid al-Khudri reported from the Prophet (pbuh) in which he said, Al-mahdi will emerge at the end period of my ummah in which, by that time, Allah will send the rain with blessing, the soil grows plantation, the wealth will be in abundance and distributed justly, the ummah is dignified and he (al-mahdi) will be in the midst of them within seven or eight years.
In certain narration it talks about vicegerent (khalifah) which apparently pertains to al-maÍdi as narrated by Imam Muslim who said, At the end of the time (akhir al-zaman) there will be khalifah to distribute the wealth without making any account\'.
This is the narration which does not straightly deal with al-mahdi but mentions the arrival of a just person who is going to save humanity. Again, the tradition was narrated by Abu SaÑid al-Khudri who heard from the Prophet in which he said,
At the end of the day a person will come out from my family in the midst of test and his gift is so abundance.
Similar hadith can be referred to the report of Imam ÑAli b. Ùalib who heard from the Prophet (pbuh) in which he said,

When there is only one day left Allah will send a person from us (family of the Prophet) and the world will be overwhelmed with justice as previously was full of injustice.
Again, this is the tradition which directly mentions al-mahdi as narrated by Imam ÑAli b. Abi Ùalib who heard from the Prophet in which he said, Al-mahdi is from my family in which Allah will settle the problem of the ummah in one night.
In more explicit way, Imam ÑAli b. Abi Talib ever said to Abu Ishak while he was looking to his son, Hassan, in which he said, This is my son known as master (sayyid) as the Prophet gave that name. Through him will come out a person whose name is the same like the name of your Prophet (pbuh) and possess similar character. The world will be full of justice.

This is the hadith which clearly mentions that al-mahdi will come from the son of Fatimah as narrated by Um Salmah who heard from the Prophet (pbuh) said, \'Mahdi is from my family (ÑatratÊ) from the son of Fatimah\'. It is also mentioned that al-mahdi will come from the east without naming particular place. This is the report of Ibn MasÑud who narrated his experiences when he was sitting with the Prophet (pbuh) in which he said, When we were with the Prophet (pbuh), then, a group of youth from Bani Hashim came and when the Prophet saw them, his eyes were in tears and the color of his face changed. Then I asked, we notice on your face as if there is something that you may dislike. We are the family who preferred the life in the hereafter than living in this world. And my family will witness after I demise, the great test of expulsion until the people from the East arrive bringing the black flag. They ask goodness of charity and they never give rather they fight against them. Later on, they were given the victory and then, people offer what they want but they refuse until they pay it to a person from my family who arrive to this world to establish justice as it was the full of misery before. Then, whoever witnesses him, please come although with difficulties.
This following tradition mentions about the word khalifah al-mahdi which will come out, again, from the East. It is mentioned by Ibn Majah in his book as narrated from Thawban in which the Prophet (pbuh) said,

Three from your treasure will be exposed for killing. All of them are son of khalifah and one of them will be saved. Then, people from the East with black flags appear to fight severely against you which I could not imagine about it. If you see that person just follow him even if you have to face difficulties as he is khalifah al-mahdi. In one source we found that the emergence of al-mahdi is related with the attitude of unjust ruler who exploited the rights of people. This is mentioned by al-Timid on the report of Abu Hurayra who heard from the Prophet (pub) said, At the end of the day, my ummah will be given the severe test from their rulers until it is felt as if the whole land is so small. In that situation, Allah will send a person from my family to overwhelm with justice replacing ruthlessness and injustice. All inhabitants of the heaven and earth feel satisfied and everything that stored inside the earth will be brought out and no single drop from the heaven except to be sent it down. He lives in the midst of people for seven, eight, or night years.

In one evident it is said that al-mahdi will come out whenever good people are killed which will cause the anger from the inhabitants of the heaven as narrated by Mohair who heard from one of the companions of the Prophet (pub) who said, One of the companions of the Prophet (pub) spoke to him that al-mahdi will not come out until good people (al-nafs al-zakiyyah) are killed. Whenever they are killed the inhabitants of the heavens get angered as well as those who live on earth. Then, people will come to al-mahdi and endear him like the new married person endears his wife. Al-mahdi will overwhelm the whole earth with justice and the earth will produce fruits from all plantations and the heaven (al-sama) will pour its rain and my ummah will enjoy the bounties which they never experienced it before.
Having looked at the different narration with regard to the arrival of al-mahdi, then, Imam al-Shawkani came to the conclusion that all hadith related to al-mahdi al-muntazar, al-dajjal, and the coming down of the Prophet Isa, the son of Mary, from the heaven reach the level of authenticity known as al-mutawatir.

Mahdi and Imamate Order
We have seen in various sources that Mahdism is intermittent with the governance based on justice which will emerge in the midst of crisis. The sources do not give the details rather just mention in general that a selected person with positive characters would become the source of blessing and savior of the ummah. The imamate government in Islam is imperative in which without it there will not be any prevalence of justice. Since the death of the Prophet (pbuh) there were governments under caliphate system to unite the potentials of the ummah. Imam ÑAli (may Allah be peace with him) for instance, gave strong warning that one day of the ummah will encounter the crisis which can only be handled through the structuring the values of the divine message into the good order (al-nizam). Structuring the values must be done both in individuals and the collective level through the establishment the sound of governance. The absence of the viable governmental order based on the divine guidance will only create the chaos. In view of this, the warning as given by the fourth caliph says, \'The truth (al-haq) without good governance will be easily defeated with truth which is orderly structured,’ is always relevant.

Since the inception, the message of all Prophets was aimed at establishing peace and justice which ultimately to dedicate the whole of activities of human beings to the will of Allah. The actualization of such noble attempt cannot be done without struggle to eradicate evil forces. In the eve of the creation of Adam for instance, Allah informed the Angle Gabriel on the enmity and bloodshed among human beings. Those who are concerned to promote goodness to invite others to turn into the divine guidance to achieve happiness and peace in the community are categorized and khalifah (lit. vicegerent) as the initial purpose of creation as mentioned in this evident,
Behold, Thy Lord said to the angels: "I will create a vicegerent on earth." They said: "Wilt Thou place therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood?- whilst we do celebrate Thy praises and glorify Thy holy (name)?" He said: "I know what ye know not."
Khalifah is related with the emergence of selected people who were later appointed as Prophets and Messengers with the special task of conveying the message. It could also be in the form of ordinary human beings who are governed with the divine message and categorized as martyrs (al-shuhada), faithful people (al-sadiqun), pietistic people (al-salihun), saints (al-awliya), men of goodness (al-abrar), as well as Muslim scholars who devote their lives for the cause of goodness (Ñulama al-Ñamilun).

Allah SWT did not want to leave human beings without guidance. The Prophet Adam as the first human being was reminded on emerging mischievous deeds (fasad) on earth and after the expulsion from the paradise Allah advised him to observe the revelation to save their life. This, among other things, can be seen in these following verses, We said: “Get ye down from here; and if, as is sure, there comes to you guidance from Me, whosoever follows My guidance, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.

Both Shiite and Sunni share the belief on Islamic order based on the divine message. The first, from the inception, is very much concerned with the imamate system although there are differences of opinion with regard to the interpretation of the textual evidences pertaining to the appointment of an imam to govern people based on the dictum of the revelation in which, according to them, only Allah has the right to appoint him. While the later could be in any form which includes the caliphate government with the application of the SharÊÑah. As far the issue is concerned, al-mahdi also is related with the caliphate system known as khalifah al-mahdi as mentioned, among other things, in the hadith narrated by Ibn Majah in which he said, fi iza raytumuhu fatabiÑuhu walaw habaw Ñala al-thalj fainnahu khalifatullah al-mahdi (whenever you have seen, just follow him even you face difficulties as he is the caliph of God who have been granted with guidance).
The khalifah al-mahdi who will be the savior of humanity at the end period of the world will be remaining with the ummah within seven or eight years to demonstrate peace, justice, and prosperity of the ummah with the wise leadership based on the divine guidance. The ummah will retain the lost dignity and there will not be any other forces either religious or ideological used to dominate the Muslim ummah. The Rome will be conquered, Jewish and Christian hegemony will be tarnished, and no other forces will be in position to challenge the leadership of al-mahdi.

Religious Reformers
The arrival of Imam al-Mahdi indicates the end of worldly live which will be proceeded with internal crisis of the Muslim ummah due to the diversity of doctrinal affiliation, challenges of other religious adherents i.e. Judaism and Christianity as well as subservient to unbeliever forces who subscribe to man-made ideological system i.e socio-economic and political which lead into the bankruptcies and exploitation. It is as a matter of fact, most evidences on al-mahdi are related with internal and external challenges. The first is due to the deviation of Muslims from the mainstream of the belief, selfishness, moral degeneration, and demise of socio-economic solidarity, diversity of school of thought, irreconcilable conflict, ruthlessness and injustices of Muslim rulers. In addition, it is also partly related to incompetence in the field of science, technology, and management. The second is due the influence of Western ideological belief such as pseudo democratic system, Western economic domination, political interference and the military onslaught against Muslims. We have to be aware that before the arrival of al-mahdi which becomes the expectation of Muslims, the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) whose leadership style will be manifested in the hand of al-mahdi also ensures the arrival of revivalists and reformers who will emerge at the turn over of every century as reflected in the tradition, At the first part of each century, Allah will send a person who will make reform of His religion.
he role of those who are known as religious reformers is, among other things, to revive religious practice which has been ignored by people, giving spiritual guidance, exposing the religious tenets which ensures peace, justice, and balance of lives, and to remind the ummah with viable religious doctrine throughout the time and to make sure that Islam covers the whole gamut of human activities i.e. spiritual, socio-economic, political and governmental affairs.

From the Shiite circle the world witnessed the emergence of charismatic leader, Ayatollah Ruhullah Khomeini, the greatest and the most influential Shiite reformer who, at the end, brought about an Islamic republic of Iran based on the divine system. As other religious reformers, Imam Khomeini emerged with bold resistance on the recalcitrant and injustices in the hands of Emperor Shah Pahlevi. The echo of reviving Islam in the hands of Imam Khomeini was obstructed by the then ruler and expelled him from his homeland. Due to his sincere works for the cause of justice, some scholars regard that he possesses the value characters of Mahdism.
Until then, the fame and examples of leadership, and depth of his knowledge he came out with the theory of sultah wilayah al-faqih which is very distinctive. According to him, since the arrival of al-mahdi is a part of the invisible matter in which both Sunni and Shiite share the belief on the arrival, then, we should not be over obsessed about the time of emergence. Muslim should never think to stop doing the collective work simply because the absence of imam rather to actualize the values of justice which would be brought about by al-mahdi in handling the problems of the Muslim ummah. To shed more light we quote the statement of the late ayatollah Khomeini in which he said,
It already passed more than a thousand year on the absence of Imam al-Mahdi and even it may take more thousands years to handle the ummah in the hands of awaited imam. During the waiting the process, the status of Islamic law should not be in stalemate which causes people to do as they wish? Do you think such condition could only create havoc? Do we want to make Islam lose simply because the absence of imam al-mahdi? For me, to support this idea is worse than to believe that Islam is abrogated.

We should be very concerned in the absence of the Imam al-Mahdi in undertaking the task of establishing justice. The absence of an Imam al-Mahdi should not be discerned in the sense that we could not run an Islamic government due to the absence of the Prophet (pbuh) or the absence of the person who was given the will (al-wasiyyah). Again, we quote imam Khomeini statement in which he vividly mentions the role of wilayah al-faqih,

The government represents the crystal operation of futuristic oriented fiqh in dealing with all aspects of socio-political, military, and culture. The existence of fiqh can be regarded as comprehensive theoretical reality in running the human society from the cradle to the grave. Moreover, as the founder of Iranian revolution, his aloofness from political interest is obvious. He devoted the whole of his activities for the cause of peace, justice, and prosperity of the nation. To my humble knowledge about political situation in Iran, at present, none of the relatives of the late ayatollah Khomeini involves in pragmatic political interests. While from Sunni we found Imam Hassan al-Banna who became martyr in the hands of Western agent. His thought and ideas brought tremendous influence throughout the Muslim world. From inception he showed antagonism toward hegemony of Western ideological system and civilization which started from colonial period. As other Muslim reformers he faced a lot resistance especially from the despotic ruler which caused, at the end, to his assassination. The death of such person did not mean the extinction of ideas which were laid down during his lives as continual process of conveying the message which ultimately leads into the application of the divine law to achieve peace and balance of human lives.

The emphasis of da\'wah of Muslim Brethren is cooperation with other organizations until the establishment of an Islamic government. Then, it is worth noting the view of its founder, Hassan al-Banna\' in which he reiterated the policy of his organization toward others in which he said, Our standpoints toward other all Muslim organizations which have different forms and orientations is based on the view of love, brotherhood, cooperation, and maximum effort to come closer in terms of thought (wijhat al-nazr) and bridge the differences to assist establishment of the truth in the spirit of cooperation (al-taÑawun) and love (al-Íub). We should not be separated because of different school of thought (mazhab) as the religious of God brings the characters of moderation (yusr) and it will no look strange unless a person is defeated when a person does not posses true vision. God has made us to adopt an ideal strategy with the use of moderate approach (uslub al-layyin). I am sure that the day will come in which the differences of names of organization will diminish to replace the psychological gap and there will not be any groups except all of them are brother not necessarily to be members of Muslim Brethren.

It is worth noting the view of Hassan al-Banna’ to awaken the mind of the Muslim Ummah that says,Allah has sent you a leader who prescribed an order, made the detail of laws, gave the book which made lawful and unlawful, gave guidance in attaining goodness and happiness, guided you to the straight path. Have you followed your leader, implemented its laws, appreciated its order, making holistic of its book, and made what is lawful and abandoned what is unlawful? Be plain in your response in which you will see the truth in front of you. All orders, which govern your social affairs, have no relation with Islam. All laws in national level up to the international relation, system of court, system of defense and military, economic system in the individual and state level, culture and education, system of family life, even personal behavior and general spirit which are followed by rulers and people at large, are far away from teaching of Islam. In view of these, we call you in which the Qur\'an is in our hand and the Sunnah is in our left, the practice of previous pious predecessors is our model, we call them into Islam and its teaching, its laws, and guidance. If it is seen as a part of system of policy, then, it is our policy and whenever you want to call that it is political activities you may say it whatever you want."

Conclusion: Global Challenges
At present, the Muslim world faces the great challenges which focus on dissemination of ideas, transnational borderless trade in economy, industry, agriculture, technology, military warfare, and many other things in global scale. It is presumed that opening borders will yield global economy that will replace country economies; a \'global\' government will replace territorial states; a homogeneous \'global\' culture will replace diverse local cultures; and allegiances to a \'global\' community will replace national loyalties. The current trend of globalization is mainly related with Western domination in international economy. Many people of different fields are using the word to signify that something profound is happening that the world is changing, that new world economic, political and cultural order is emerging. (Dougless Keller: 2002).
Despite worrisome on disastrous effect, globalization it may bring benefits based on the response of people toward it. We do not negate the existence of various effects in the community. The rapid change of technological progress resulted from human civilization it also brings about good result with utmost care. Many scholars believe that today\'s world is organized by increasing globalization, which is strengthening the dominance of a world capitalist economic system eroding local traditions through a global culture. The operation of transnational corporations with the sole aim of multiplying profits caused the widening economic gap between the rich and poor countries. Globalization promotes consumerism mentality leading people to earn worldly gain regardless of ethical and moral values.
Moreover, it set aside indigenous cultures of third world to follow the pattern of the West. In the aspect of education for instance, the curriculum is mainly focused on technical and managerial skills undermining the traditional subjects. It gears to acquire specific skills and techniques ignoring moral aspects. In fact, the issue of globalization is no more than transforming American and Western culture which detrimental to the spirituality. IT which characterizes the current trend of globalization promotes moral crisis of the youths through pornographic advertisement. In addition, it is being misused by certain group to deceive electronic cash transaction that may cause heavy loses. Moreover, globalization has caused increasing crime and people get confused on the conflicting news from different sources. The booming of information technology is also being benefited to spread the news for political agenda of the big power victimizing the third world (Chandra Muzaffar, 2002).

It is quite interesting to note the view of scholars who regard globalization as new imperialism that displaces the focus of domination of developing countries by the overdeveloped ones, or of national and local economies by transnational corporation. It is also considered to serve as cover to neutralize the horrors of colonialism and even could be a part of a discourse of neo-imperialism to continue exploitation of much the world by a few superpowers and giant transnational corporations. The opposition against globalization is centered mainly on destruction of local traditions, subordination of poorer regions by richer ones, environmental pollution, as well as homogenization of culture and everyday life. This includes multiculturalists who stress the threat to national sovereignty, local traditions, environmentalists who fear the destructive ecological effects and conservatives or religious leaders who see globalization as a threat to national and local cultures and the sanctity of tradition (Kellner, 1989).

The person like Roland Axtmann hints that the worst thing is that the globalization could give the effect of emerging the new forms of imperialist domination under the disguise of universality and globality. The globalization serves as new form of Westernization or even Americanization of the world. In view of this, we should not be surprised to see resistance from religious believers to reject homogenization and Westernization associated with some forms of globalization.
As far as the globalization is concerned, the absence of imam al-mahdi who will emerge in a certain time to save the ummah from local and global challenges, Muslim leaders should take priority to inherit the values of peace and justice which becomes the main character given to the Prophet (pbuh). They should be in position to demonstrate the divine values in running the government. Due to the complexity of challenges which threaten the ummah, then, Muslim leaders both from Sunni and Shiite are expected to galvanize cooperation and mutual understanding to overcome internal and external challenges. They should make continuous endeavor to demonstrate the service to the nation as a whole by giving exemplary deeds that they are not aimed at victimizing others for trivial gain. Their presence in the highest governmental should be attempted to make peace and justice in the community. Apart from that, they should make sure that they are not subservient to unbeliever forces as it is reflected in the character of Imam al-Mahdi at the time of his arrival to this world.

 

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