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Q: What is the wisdoms in repeating "In the name of Allah, the Beneficent the Merciful" in the begining of each chapter of the Qur'an?

The Qur'anic invocation: "In the name of Allah"

Q: What is the wisdoms in repeating "In the name of Allah, the Beneficent the Merciful" in the begining of each chapter of the Qur'an?

A: Just as every chapter has a particular objective, the invocation "In the name..." has its own particular purpose in relationship with each chapter; thus in order for each chapter to fulfill its intended goal this invocation must be repeated. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 (A Commentary on Qur'an) Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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The Interval Life Between Heaven and Hell (Barzakh)

S: Some say that the context of verse 28 of the chapter of The Cow (Al-Baqarah) and verse 11 of the chapter of The Believer (Al-Mu'min) - How can ye disbelieve in God; for ye were lifeless (in your mother's womb) He brought you to life. He causeth you to die and again (He will) restore you to life then unto Him will ye be returned (2:28) & They shall say, `O, our Lord! Twice didst Thou cause us to die, and twice didst Thou give us life, and (now) we do confess our sins: Is there then away to get out (of this)?' (40:11) - are the same; for they both speak about two lifes and two deaths. Therefore, both verses have one meaning - two lifes and two deaths - and neither of the two refers to an interval life (Barzak). And what is intended by death in the first verse is the physical state of man before his earthly life and spirit was breathe into him, while death in the second verse means earthly death (the removal of the soul from the earth). And what is intended by life in the first verse is the worldly li fe, while life in the second verse means life in the hereafter (on the Day of Judgement).

A: This saying in not correct because, the context of these two verses are different. In the first verse there is one (aboslute) death, one deprivation of life (to cause to die), and two endowments of live, whereas in the second verse there are two depri vations of life and two endowments of life. It is clear that deprivation of life is not possible unless there is life before it, however (aboslute) death is not dependant upon a previous life. Thereupon, death in the first verse is verse is different fro m `the deprivation of life', which comes in the first and second verses. According to this the first `deprivation of life' in the verse - Twice didst Thou cause us to die, and twice didst Thou give us life (40:11) - is after the life of this world and th e first endowment of life is also after this worldly life, which is related to the interval life between heaven and hell; and the second death and life is related to the Day of Judgment. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 111 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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Qur'anic Guidance for the Devout

Q: In the 2nd verse of the Holy Chapter of the Cow (Al-Baqarah) it is written that the Qur'an is a guide for those who are devout, when in fact they have already found guidance and become pious through their observance of divine law. How is it that the Q ur'an can guide such people (those who have already been guided)?

A: The devout have two types of guidance. The first is primordial, which is enjoyed by man's pure God-given nature. The second or subsequent guidance is that of the Qur'an, which in fact perfects primordial guidance. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 (A Commentary on Qur'an) Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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The Efficacy of Allah and (His) Servants

Q: In the Qur'an, from one point of view, action is ascribed to Allah - even actions concerning human will power. Likewise, from another point of view, the preformance of miracles are ascribed to the actions of prophets or angles. What is the solution fo r this contradiction?

A: there is no contradiction between these two points of view. That is because the actions of Allah are transcendent compared to the actions of His servants. Hence, the preformance of divine miracles can be ascribed to Allah - the same can be said about every action - from the point of view that their existences are dependant upon divine authorization. On the other hand, the preformance of such actions can be ascribed to prophets and angles from the point of view that they are mediators (of Allah's actions) or they are the direct actors in performing those acts - just as raising the dead, curing the sick, and giving life to a bird are ascirbed to Jesus (AS) in the Holy Qur'an. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 81 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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A Critique on Empiricism

S: Many Empiricists, especially partisans of the perception theory, argue that because the results of intellectual acumen and deduction are faulty and misgiving (it does not distingush right from wrong), the only sure method of finding truth is through s ense perception; for the sensses have a direct relationship with the external world based on experience.

A: 1. This argument makes use of a thoughtful premise and rational judgment via intellectual acumen and deduction. According to this (critique), if this argument is correct it would necessitate the invalidity of the (Empiricists) argument. 2. Errors made through sense perception is not less than those made by rational inference. If a particular domain of knowledge is invalid on the account that it is prone to fallacy, then the sense perception faculty is more fallacious than rational acume n. 3. Although distingushing right from wrong is a necessary process for every type of preception (rational or sense), sense preception is based on repetitive experimentation, which will yield a rational premise. For example, through expiments we come to kn ow that a particular element always or in most cases have a define quality; this finding is then associated with a major premise stating: If this quality occurs in another element in the same fashion, then it is proven to be (related to the first). Hence , the later argument is rational not sensous. 4. Assuming that experimentation supports every tangible science, it is clear that this theory can not be proven by means of another experiment, on the account that this would result in a vicious cycle or an infinte succession of experiments. Therefore, reliance upon the senses and experimentation, in reality, is confirmation of essential rational sciences (to proove the validity of experimental sciences). 5. The senses only perceive minor qualities, which are unfixed and constantly changing; and by compiling a thousand minor qualities a universal or general conclusion can not be made. However, knowledge is concerned with universal conception and general p remisses; and only rational cognition provides this aspect. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 (A Commentary on Qur'an) Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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