English
Sunday 25th of July 2021
603
0
نفر 0
0% این مطلب را پسندیده اند

The Sahabah in Islam

The Sahabah in Islam


The Shia: The Real Followers of the Sunnah


When going through the topic of Sahabah without any prejudice or emotions, we see that the Shi'ah have given them the ranks ordained by the Qur'an and the Prophetic Sunnah and as obligated by reason. They (Shi'ah) have never charged them all with disbelief as done by the Ghulat, nor believed in their equity (adhalah) as a whole, as done by Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jam'ah.
In this respect, al-Imam Sharaf al-Din al-Musawi says: "Anyone ponders upon our opinion in regard of the Sahabah, comes to know that it is the most moderate of all, as we have never exceeded the proper bounds like the Ghulat who regarded all of them as infidels, nor gone to extremes as done by the Jamhur (Sunnah) who had confidence in all of them. The Kamalites and their in ghulluw have charged all the sahabah with impiety (kufr) and Ahl al-Sunnah believe in the justice of every one who has heard or seen the Prophet among Muslims absolutely, disputing with the hadith (Every creeping and walking of them all).
But for us, though seeing the (prophet's) companionship in itself as a laudable virtue but not impcabling, we opine that the sahabah are like other people including the just ones represented by their magnates and scholars, and the tyrants and the culprits from among the hypocrites and also those of unknown condition, but we reason with their just ones and follow their guide in the world and Hereafter.
Regarding the bughat (oppressors) against the wasi (executor) and Prophet's brother, and all culprits like Ibn Hind, Ibn al-Nabigah, Ibn al-Zarqa', Ibn 'Aqabah and Ibn Arta'ah and their likes, we never hold any weight for them nor give their hadithany consideraion. In regard of that whose condition is unknown (maghul al-hal), we never judge him unil getting acquainted with his nature.
This is our view in regard of the traditionists among the Sahabah, relying upon the Qur'an and Sunnah as an avidence for it, as elaborated in the arguments in Usul al-fiqh. The Jumhur have exaggerated in sanctifying every one they have call a Sahabi, to the extent exceeding moderation, as they have offered for argument the lean and the corpulent, blindly following the guide of every Muslim who heard or saw the Prophet (S), disapproving anyone contradicting them in this ghuluww (excess), going too far on this disapproval.
Their severest denial against us comes when we refute the hadith of a large number of Sahabah, expressing their untruthfulness or being of unknown state, acting according to the legal duty that calls for investigating the religious realities, and searching for the veracious (sahih) Prophetic traditions.
This has prompted them to look at us with mistrust and suspicion, accusing us with many charges through divination and out of ignorance (jahl). But had they come to their senses and referred to bases of knowledge, they would have realized that no evidence is there to prove the originality of justice ('adalah) among the Sahabah. If they deliberate on the holy Qur'an, they will find it replete with references to the hypocrites among them, like surat al-al-'Ahzab and others''. (End of Sharaf al-Din's quotation).
Dr. Hamid Hafni, the Head of Arabic Department in 'Ayn al-Shams University in Cairo, says: ''But the Shi'ah view the Sahabah like other Muslims with no difference, on account of justice balance, with which the acts of Sahabah and of their successors are weighed. The Companionship in itself can't render its owner any virtue unless he deserves it, and being competent for undertaking the mission of the Shari'ah , including the infallibles, such as the Imams who enjoyed the Messenger's company, like 'Ali and his sons (A). They include also the equitable, who have been kind companions for 'Ali after the Prophet's demise.
They include too the truthful mujtahid and the mistaken one, the debauches, and the zindiq who is uglier and more wicked than the debauchee, that includes the hypocrites who worship God upon a narrow meager, and also the infidels, who have never repented of their hypocrisy, and those who have apostatized after being Muslims.
The meaning we get from this, is that the Shi'ah -who constitute a big majority of worshippers -judge all Muslims through one criterion, without differentiating between a Sahabi (companion) and Tabi'i (follower) and a letter, safeguarding its owner in his belief (against error).
On this solid basis, they (the Shi'ah )- following their ijtihad- permitted criticizing the Sahabah, and investigating the level of their justice, beside allowing themselves to find fault with some of the Companions who have violated the requirements of companionship, and turned away from the affection toward Al Muhammad (S). Why not, while the holy Messenger says: [I am leaving behind among you two things, if you hold on to them you will never go astray: the Book of Allah and my Kindred ('Itrah), my Household, for indeed, the two will never separate until they come back to me by the Pond. So watch out how you treat these two after me.] Based on this hadith and its like, they consider many companions to have contradicted it through persecuting the Household of Muhammad, and their reviling some of the 'Itrah. Therefore how can such opposes enjoy the honour of companionship, and how can they be branded with 'adalah (justice) ?!This is the quintessence of the Shi'ah's opinion in denying some Companions of the trait of justice, and such are the factual scientific reasons upon which they have founded their proofs".
In another place, Dr. Hamid Hafni confesses that reproaching or doubting the Sahabah, has not been innovated by the Shi'ah alone, when he says: "In the past he Mu'tazilah have practiced such criticism beside other doctrinal problems, being unsatisfied with criticizing the Sahabah in general but even Caliphs themselves, the practice for which they had opponents and supporters. Criticizing the Sahabah used to be -during the early centuries- followed only by those who were firm in knowledge, particularly the Mu'tazilah 'ulama', preceded by the heads of the Shi'ah and chiefs of the fanatics towards Muhammad's Household.
I have indicated, at another place, that the theologians and Mu'tazilah shyakhs used to be 'alah (pauper) sustaining and Shi'ah leaders from the first century (H). So the matter of criticizing the Sahabah is originated by tashayyu' for Muhammad's Household, but not for tashayyu, itself, since the Shi'ah of Al Muhammad have been known of their profundity in the sciences of doctrines, due to their getting from the resources of Ahl al-Bayt Imams, who represent the pristine source and plentiful spring (of knowledge) of which all the Islamic cultures have drunk from the advent of Islam up to date". 282Here the speech of Dr. Hamid (Hafni) Dawud is over.
I believe that every truth-seeker should open the gate of criticism and tajrih (sarcasm), as otherwise he will be curbed from entering it, exactly like the case of Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jam'ah, who have exaggerated in believing in the justice of the Sahabah, without any verification or investigation into the their states, the fact that caused them to remain too far from the truth till the present time.
282. Al-Sahabah fi nazar al-Shi'ah al-'Imamiyyah, p.8 and onwards.
Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah have exaggerated in glorifying the Sahabah, and believing in their justice as a whole with no exception, exceeding in this all the bounds of reason and transmission, refuting every one criticizing them or denying their justice, beside charging him which debauchery. Here are some of their utterance to expose their remoteness from the Qur'anic concepts, the percepts confirmed by the Prophetic Sunnah, and those established by reason.
Al-'Imam al-Nawawi says in sharh Sahih Muslim: "The Sahabah are all the of people and masters of the Ummah, superior, but the rabble has been caused by those who succeeded them, and fault has been in those ones". 283
Yahya ibn Ma'in says: "Every one insulting 'Uthman or Talhah or any of the Prophet's companions, is but an imposter not to be relied upon in writing (the hadith), and upon him be the curse of Allah and the angels and all people". 284
Al-Dhahabi also says: "Slandering any of the Sahabah is major sin, and anyone defaming or slandering them will go out of the fold of Islam and renegade the religion of Muslims".285
Once al-Qadi Abu Ya'la was asked about the rule in regard of that who insults Abu Bakr? He replied: He is a disbeliever, and then was asked: It is permissible to perform salat (salat al-mayyit) on him? He said: No. Then it was said: What to do for him while he witnesses that there is no god but Allah? He replied: Do not touch him with your hands, but push him with a stick till you bury him in his grave."286
283. Sahih Muslim, vol, viii, p.22.
284. Tadhhib al-tahdhib, vol, i, p.509.
285. Al-Dhahabi, Kitab al-kaba'ir pp. 233, 235.
286. Al-Sarim al-masalul, p.275.
Al-'Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal says: The best of people after the prophet (S) is Abu Bakr, then 'Umar, then 'Uthman and then 'Ali, who are rightly -guided caliphs, and mention their mischief, or defame them with any fault or blemish, and anyone doing this has to be chastised and punished, and not to be pardoned. He should be punished and asked to repent, if he repents it should be accepted from him, but if he insists he should be punihsed again and imprisoned till he dies or repents".
Al-Shaykh 'Ala' al-Din al-Tarablusi al-Hanafi says: ''Anyone insults any of the Prophtet's Companions, as Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, 'Ali, Mu'awiayah or 'Amr ibn al'As, and accusing them with deviation and kufr (disbelief), should be executed, but if he insults them with ordinary faults, he should be punished severely''.287
Dr. Hmid Hafni Dawud briefly reported the sayings of Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-jama'ah saying: Ahl al-Sunnah view all the Sahabah to be just altogether, though they differ in the degrees of 'adalah, and that whoever charges any Sahabi with impiety is a disbelievers, and charges him with debauchery is a debauchee, and anyone defaming any Companion is as if he has defamed the Messenger of Allah (S).
The critics of Ahl al-Sunnah believe the it is not permissible to engage in debating the historical events that took place between 'Ali and Mu'awiyah. And that of the Companions there is one who has interpreted and hit the mark, like 'Ali and whoever followed his example. There are some who have exerted their opinions but mistaken, like Mu'awiyah and 'A'ishah and those who followed their example. They believe too that it should be made a halt and abstaining, up to the limits of this judgement, without mentioning the disgraces. They have forbidden the slandering of Mu'awiyah due to his being a companion, with emphasis on forbidding slandering 'A'isha, due to her being the second Umm
287. Mu'in al-hukkam fima yataraddad bayn al-Kasmayn min al-'ahkam, p.187.
al-Mu'minin after Khadijah, and on account of her being the beloved of the Messenger of Allah. Debating any other matter should be abandoned and left to Allah, the Glorified. In this respect al-Hasan al-Basri and Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab say: "There are matters of which Allah has purified our hands and swords, so let us cleanse our tongues of them"
This being the quintessence of Ahl-al-Sunnah's opinions regarding the justice of the Companions and the things we should abstain from referring to about them".288 (The end of his speech).
Should any researcher intend to acquire more information in regard of the Sahabah, and who are the ones meant by this term as opined by Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jam'ah, he will realize that they give this honorary badge to anyone who saw the Prophet!
Al-Bakhari says in his Sahih: Anyone enjoyed the company of the Messenger of Allah (s) or saw him, is counted among his Companions.
Ahmed ibn Hanbal says: The best of people after the Messenger's Companions among the Badriyyun, is every one who has enjoyed his (s) company for a year or a month or one day, or who has seen him, and the degree he deserves is proportionate with the period of his company with him.289
Ibn Hajar, in the book al-'Isabah fi tamyiz al-Sahabah, says: "Every one who has narrated a hadith or a word from the Prophet, or seen him while believing in him, is counted among the Sahabah. Also (of the Sahabah) is any one who has met the Prophet with believing in him, and died as a Muslim, whether his meeting with him being long or short, narrating from him or not, invading or not, or who has seen him without sitting with him, or has not seen him due to an excuse.290
The overwhelming majority of Ahl al-Sunnah had this view, and regard as a companion anyone who has seen the Prophet, or was born during his lifetime, even before attaining
288. Al-Sahabah fi nazar al-Shi'ah al-'Imamiyyah, pp. 8,9.
289. Al-Kifayah, p. 51; LTaliqh fuhum ahl al-'athar, p.2.
290. Ibn Hajar, al-'Isabah, vol.i, p.10.
puberty. The clearest evidence for this is their counting Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr among the Sahabah, though he was only three months old at the time of the Prophet's demise. Therefore Ibn Sa'd has classified the Sahabah into five classes in his famous book: Tabaqat Ibn Sa'd.
Al-Hakim al-Nisaburi, the author of al-Mustadrak, classifies them into twelve classes as follows:
First Class: Those who embraced Islam at Makkah before the migration, like al-Khulafa' al-Rashidun.
Second Class: Those who attended Dar al-Nadwah.
Third Class: Those who migrated to Abyssinia.
Fourth Class: Those who attended the First 'Aqabah.
Fifth Class: Those who attended the second 'Aqabah.
Sixth Class: Those who migrated to al-Madinah after the Messenger's migration to it.
Seventh Class: Those who witnessed Battle of Badr.
Eighth Class: Those who migrated after Badr and before al-Hudaybiyyah (peace Treaty).
Nineth Class: Those who attended Bay'at al-Ridwan.
Tenth Class: Those who migrated after al-Hudaybiyyah and before Conquest of Makkah, like Khalid ibn al-Walid and 'Amr ibn al-'As and others.
Eleventh Class: Those who were called by the Prophet (S) al-Tulaqa'.
Twelfth Class: The lads and children of the Sahabah who were born during the Prophet's lifetime, like Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr.
Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jam'ah concur concerning the justice of all the Sahabah, and the four schools of thought recognize their narrations without any hesitation, allowing no one to criticize or defame them.
Needles to say that the men of jarh (criticism) and ta'dil (adjustment), undertaking the task of criticizing the traditionists and narrators, for sorting out and purifying the traditions, when not intending to talk about any Companion, whatever be his class and his age at the time of the Prophet's demise, they abstain from doubting his narration despite all the suspicious raised against it, and its contradiction to reason ('aql) and chain of transmission (naql), claiming that the Sahabah are not to be subjected to criticism and sacrasm and all being just!
This is verily a manifested of which is reason is averse, human nature is repugnant, and not established by knowledge ('ilm), and I do not think the educated youth of today, may acknowledge such silly bida' (innovation).
It is known where from Ahl al-Sunnah have extracted such thoughts, that are estrange to the sprit of Islam, which has been established upon the scientific evidence and final argument. I wish that even one of them; can prove to me the alleged 'adalah of the Sahabah, through only one evidence from a scripture or Sunnah or logic!

603
0
0% (نفر 0)
 
نظر شما در مورد این مطلب ؟
 
امتیاز شما به این مطلب ؟
اشتراک گذاری در شبکه های اجتماعی:

latest article

Lady Zainab, the greatest messenger of the Hussaini Revolution
Dream of Ummul Fadl
In the third year of Hijrah they marched with 3,000 well armed solders towards Madinah
The Prophet (a.s.) established wonderful methods of education part 2
The Historical Sermon of Ghadeer
Meaning of Ismat
THE FORCES OF TRUTH AND FALSEHOOD FACE EACH OTHER
Lineage of Umar (Omar) Bin Al Khattab
Are there any women who reached the rank of ijtihad in religious seminaries?
THE END OF IBN MULJIM AND HIS COHORTS

latest article

Lady Zainab, the greatest messenger of the Hussaini Revolution
Dream of Ummul Fadl
In the third year of Hijrah they marched with 3,000 well armed solders towards Madinah
The Prophet (a.s.) established wonderful methods of education part 2
The Historical Sermon of Ghadeer
Meaning of Ismat
THE FORCES OF TRUTH AND FALSEHOOD FACE EACH OTHER
Lineage of Umar (Omar) Bin Al Khattab
Are there any women who reached the rank of ijtihad in religious seminaries?
THE END OF IBN MULJIM AND HIS COHORTS

 
user comment