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Thursday 1st of December 2022
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Ghadir Tradition

 Ghadir Tradition

 

The expressive evidence for guardianship

 

Prepared by Islamic Sciences and Researches Group– Qom

 

 

Unprecedented offence!

In the open political climate recently established in the country, a number of Sunnite Molavi in the southern parts of the country, have started their offence to the Shiite beliefs (state’s official school) in contrary to their commitment on the issue of solidarity, an example of which is the article with the title of “The legendary of martyrdom of Hazrat Zahra (a.s.)”, which was published in the “Nedaye Islam” magazine (licensed by Ministry of Guidance), and we replied it decisively.

Now, we came to know that one of the other southern Sunnite Molavi has stated provocative utterances in respect to “Ghadir tradition”, which is in contradiction with the facts existing in the tradition, history and biography books. It persuaded us to explain Ghadir tradition clearly and concisely, and let the public opinion to judge, to see what is the conclusion of offence to the state’s official school? And how long we shall be silent?!

 

Preface

You may have heard the name of Ghadir. It is a territory between Mecca and Medina, near Johfeh, which is 200 km far from Mecca. It is a cross road, where the pilgrims of different parts separate from each other:

a road towards Medina, northward

a road towards Iraq, eastward

a road towards Egypt, westward

a road towards Yemen, southward

 

Today, it is an abandoned area, but once it was the witness of one the greatest events in the Islamic history, that is, the day of appointment of Ali (a.s.) as the successor of Prophet (s.a.w.a.) (on eighteenth of Zelhejjah, 10th A.H.).

Although for political purposes, the caliphs have tried to erase the memory of this great historical event, and now too, some of the fanatic individuals try to disappear or make it fade for some reasons, nevertheless, the dimensions of this event is too extensive in history, tradition and Arab literature, to be erased, covered or forgotten.

In the present booklet, you will find the documents and references in this respect, so that you will be amazed, and may ask yourself that how such a lot of proofs and evidences could be covered or neglected?!

We hope these logical analyses and evidences derived from the Sunnite references to be the means of approaching the lines of world Moslems, and the facts which were previously left unattended to be taken into precise consideration, specially by the young generation.

 

Islamic Sciences and Researches Group – Qom

Ghadir Tradition

The expressive evidence for guardianship

 

Ghadir tradition is one of the conclusive evidences for the immediate guardianship and caliphate of Ali (a.s.) after the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), and the researchers render a special importance to it.

Unfortunately, those who prejudice with regard to his guardianship, once accept validity of the tradition, and express doubt for its implication, and once question about its authenticity.

For clarification of different aspects of this tradition, it is necessary to talk about both groups with authentic and valid evidences:

 

 

Background of Ghadir

The “Farewell pilgrimage” ceremony was completed in the last month of the 10th A.H. The Moslems learned pilgrimage activities from the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), and then, Prophet (s.a.w.a.) decided to leave Mecca to Medina. He instructed for departure. When the caravan reached an area called “Rabegh”(1), which is three miles far from Johfeh (2), Gabriel, the inspiration angel, revealed in a point called “Ghadir Khom”, and addressed the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) with the following verse:

يا ايها الرسول بلغ ما انزل اليك من ربك و ان لم تفعل فما بلغت رسالته و الله يعصمك من الناس (3)

O Messenger, deliver that which has been sent down to thee from thy Lord; for if thou dost not, thou wilt not have delivered His Message. God will protect three from men.

 

The tone of verse indicates that God has assigned Prophet (s.a.w.a.) a critical mission, which equals with his prophetic mission, and caused despair of the Islam enemies. Is any critical mission more important than appointment of Ali (a.s.) to the rank of caliphate, guardianship and succession in front of more than hundred thousand people?!

Therefore, he ordered to stop. Those who were ahead of caravan, stopped, and those who were at the back of caravan, joined them. At noon, it was very hot, and a group of people put a part of their mantle on their head and a part under their foot. A shading was made for the Prophet through casting a veil on the tree. He sat on the high point, formed by the camel saddle, and he delivered a sermon with a loud voice, the extract of which follows:


1- Rabegh is now located between Mecca and Medina.
2- It is one of the trysting-places, and in the past, the course of people of Medina, Egypt and Iraq branched there
3- Table sura, verse 67.

 

Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) sermon in Ghadir Khom

Praise belongs to God. We seek help from Him, and believe in Him, and trust in Him. We turn to Him for our evil and unrighteous deeds. The Lord, save whom there is no guide. Whoever is guided by Him, there will be no deviator for him. I testify that there is no God, save Him, and Mohammad is his servant and prophet.

O people! Soon, I will die, and leave you. I am responsible and you too!

Then he added: What do you think about me!? (Have I fulfilled my responsibility against you?)

The crowd all said: We testify that you have accomplished your prophetic mission, and endeavored. God may grant you good rewards.

The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: Do you testify that the Lord of world is one, and Mohammad is His servant and prophet, and there is no doubt about paradise, hell, the everlasting life in the other world?

All replied: Yes, that is right. We testify!

He added: O people, I leave among you two precious things. I shall see how you treat with my two heritage?!

One stood up and asked loudly: What are these two precious things?!

Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: One is divine book, one side of which is in the powerful hand of God, and the other is with you. And the next is my Household. God has informed me that these two will never separate!

Beware, O People, do not surpass Quran and my Household. Do not fail to follow both of them. Otherwise, you will perish!

Then, he took Ali’s hand (a.s.), and raised it too high that the armpit of both of them was seen by the people, and introduced him to the people.

He asked: Who is more authorized and rightful to the believers than themselves?

All replied: God and His messenger are more aware.

The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: God is my master and I am the master of believers, and I am more authorized and rightful than themselves! Beware, O People!

من كنت مولاه فهذا علي مولاه

Whoever I am his master and authority, this Ali will be his master and authority. (1)

اللهم وال من والاه و عاد من عاداه و احب من احبه و ابغض من ابغضه و انصر من نصره و اخذل من خذله و ادر الحق معه حيث دار.

O God, be friend with whoever is friend with Ali, and be enemy with whoever is an enemy of Ali. Help whoever helps him, and leave whoever leaves him, make him the criteria of right! (2)

If you study the above sermon (3) carefully, there are quick evidences for Imamate of Ali (a.s.) in every phrase of it. (we will explain it soon).


1- The Prophet repeated this phrase for three times to avoid any future mistake!
2- This part of Ghadir tradition, and sometimes its first part, without the second or visa versa, has been mentioned in the following documents:
مسند ابن حنبل: vol. 1, p. 254; تاريخ دمشق: vol. 42, p. 207, 208 & 448; خصائص نسايي: p. 181; المعجم الكبير: vol. 17, p. 39; سنن الترمذي: vol. 5, p. 633; المستدرك علي الصحيحن, vol. 13, p. 135; المعجم الاوسط; vol. 6, p. 95; مسند ابي يعلي, vol. 1, p. 280; المحاسن و المساوئي: p. 41; مناقب خوارزمي
: p. 104, and other books.
3- A large group of known Sunnite scholars have narrated this sermon in their books, such as:
مسند احمد: vol. 1, p. 84, 88, 118, 119, 152, 281, 331, 332, 370; سنن ابن ماجه, vol. 1, p. 55, 58; المستدرك علي الصحيحين حاكم نيشابوري, vol. 3, p. 118 & 613; سنن ترمذي, vol. 5, p. 633; فتح الباري, vol. 79, p. 74; تاريخ خطيب بغدادي, vol. 8, p. 290; تاريخ الخلفاء و سيوطي, p. 114, etc.

 

The eternity of Ghadir event

The Wise God has willed the Ghadir historical event to remain in all ages and centuries, as a live history, attracting the hearts and minds, and the Islamic writers to discuss it in the commentary, history, tradition and theology books, and the religious orators to deliver lectures about it, and call it one of the undeniable virtues of Imam Ali (a.s.).

Not only the orators and lecturers, but also the poets too have been suggested by this event, and have lighted their literary talent through thinking and reflection on it, as well as increasing their loyalty to the owner of guardianship. They have left the best poems in different forms and various languages. (The Late Allameh Amini has mentioned an important part of Ghadir poems in every century of the Islamic history, while describing the attributes of the poets in the eleven volumes of Al-Ghadir book narrated from popular Islamic resources).

In other words, no other historical event in the world, has been noted so much by different classes, including traditionist, commentator, theologian, philosopher, orator, poet, historian and biographer.

One of the reasons for eternity of this tradition, is revelation of two Quranic verses (1) in respect to this event, and since Quran is eternal and everlasting, this historical event too will be never forgotten.

It is noteworthy that referring to the history clarifies that eighteenth of Zelhejjah has been known among Moslems as the Eid Ghadir, so that Ebne Khalkan says about Mostalli Ebne Mostansar: The people paid homage to him on eighteenth of Zelhejjah, Eid Ghadir, 487 A.H. (2), and he writes about Mostansar Bellah Abidi: He passed away twelve nights before the end of Zelhejjah, 487 A.H. It is the same night of eighteenth of Zelhejjah, the night of Eid Ghadir. (3)

It is interesting that Aboureyhan Birouni, in Assarol Baqieh, has called Eid Ghadir one of the feasts, which all Moslems celebrated it. (4)

Not only Ebne Khalkan and Aboureyhan Birouni have called it an Eid, but also Thalebi, one of the other famous Sunnite scholars has called Ghadir one of the popular nights among the Islamic nation. (5)

This Islamic Eid dates back to the time of Prophet (s.a.w.a.), because on that day, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) instructed the immigrants and helpers, and rather his wives, to go to Ali (a.s.) and congratulate to him for guardianship and Imamate.

Zeid Ebne Arqam says: Aboubakr, Omar, Osman, Talhe and Zobair from among the immigrants were the first who paid homage to Ali (a.s.), but the congratulation and paying homage ceremonies was continued till sunset. (6)


1- The Table sura, verses 67 & 3
2- وفيات الأعيان : vol. 1, p. 60
3-
وفيات الأعيان
: vol. 2, p. 223
4-
ترجمة الآثار الباقيه: 395; الغدير, vol. 1, p. 367.
5-
ثمار القلوب: 511
6-Congratulation of Omar Ebne Khattab has been mentioned in many of Sunnite documents, such as,
مسند ابن حنبل, vol. 6, p. 401; البداية و النهاية, vol. 5, p. 209; الفصول المهمه ابن صباغ, p. 40; فراءد السمطين, vol. 1, p. 71. Congratulation of Aboubakr, Omar, Osman, Talhe, Zobair and others have been stated in other books: مناقب علي بن ابيطالب, composed by Ahmad Ebne Mohammad Tabari (Alghadir, vol. 1, p. 270).
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