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Saturday 28th of November 2020
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Hajj

Second section: Acts of Hajj Sequence of Hajj: 1- Ihram (wearing pilgrim’s garment). 2- Stopping at Arafat from the midday of the ninth day of Thee Al-Hijja until sunset of
Hajj

Second section: Acts of Hajj

 
Sequence of Hajj:    

1- Ihram (wearing pilgrim’s garment).
2- Stopping at Arafat from the midday of the ninth day of Thee Al-Hijja until sunset of the same day.
3- Stopping at Masher Al-Hiram from evening until the sunrise of the next day.
4- Throwing pebbles in Mina on the day of Eid (greater bairam) which is coincidences with the tenth day of Thee Al-Hijja.

5- Immolation.
6- Shaving or shortening hair.
7- Hajj Tawaf (circumambulation).
8- Tawaf prayer.
9- Saia (endeavor) between Safa and Marwah mountains.
10- Tawaf Al-Nasaa (ladies).
11- Prayer of Tawaf Al-Nasaa.
12- Spending night at Mina.
13- Throwing the three pebbles.

From shortening and clipping in enjoyable omrah till Ihram for Hajj

Having accomplished enjoyable omrah acts, all prohibited things would become lawful to pilgrims, but until next ihram for Hajj and heading towards Arafat (1) a pilgrim should refrain from the following acts:

1- Leaving the holy city of Mecca. (According to a precautionary and compulsory step)(2).

2- Performing Umrah (3).

3- Hair shaving (4).
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1- Arafat is a plain and vast desert, it is located about 22 kilometers to the south east of Mecca, all pilgrims must remain in Arafat from midday of the ninth day of lunar month Thee Al-Hijja till the sunset of the same day. “Arafat” is the plural term for ‘Arafah”, its roots derived from “knowledge” and “epistemology”.

2- Grand Ayatollahs Bahjat, Khaminaei and Fadel: If a pilgrim was so confident of coming back to Mecca at the right time to accomplish Hajj rituals, he may go outside Mecca.

Ayatollah Sistani: If a pilgrim went outside the holy city of Mecca for either an important or trivial matter and he had no fear of missing Hajj rituals, and so confident of coming back to Mecca at the right time to put on ihram garment, there would be no matter of leaving Mecca.

3- Ayatollah Bahjat: Probably, there is no problem for a pilgrim to leave Mecca.

4- Ayatollah Fadel: No objection for a pilgrim to leave Mecca.

Ayatollah Sistani: No objection with regard to hair shaving, although it is a precautionary and desirable not to do so.
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Ihram (First act of Hajj rituals).

Hajj rituals as omrah begin with ihram.

*Ihram procedure at Hajj: The same way as omrah, with the exception of intention, at enjoyable omrah, the intention is for performing enjoyable omrah rituals, where here the intention is for performing Hajj.

*Time of ihram for Hajj: After accomplishing enjoyable omrah till the time of reaching Arafat at the midday of the ninth day of Thee Al-Hijja for remaining there to the sunset of the same day.

Today, and due to heavy congestion, and the fear of arriving late at Arafat, pilgrims put on Hajj garment on the evening of the eighth day of Thee Al-Hijja and head for Arafat at the same evening, although if they manage to do on the ninth day their deed would be considered lawful.

*Place for wearing ihram garment: In Mecca (1) in particular near Ishmael place or Abraham shrine as a desirable deed.
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1- Ayatollah Tabrizi: According to desirable and compulsory deed, it is better to put on ihram garment in the old part of Mecca.

Ayatollah Bahjat: According to desirable and compulsory deed, a pilgrim may put on ihram garment from any place in ancient Mecca.

Ayatollah Safi: According to requisite desirable deed, a pilgrim may wear ihram garment from ancient Mecca.

Ayatollah Makarem and Ayatollah Sistani: It is not possible for a pilgrim to wear ihram garment at places considered outside the holy mosque.
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Men wearing ihram garments inside an uncovered bus

All Hajj rituals, from ihram to throwing pebbles, are considered worship, like prayer and other various worships. They must be executed by believers on the intention of pious act toward almighty God and observing his commands. Whenever an individual wears ihram garment preparing himself for Hajj rituals all prohibited deeds are unlawful for him as it was the case in omrah.
 
Stopping at Arafat (Second act of Hajj rituals)

After putting on ihram garment in Mecca, a pilgrim must leave to Arafat desert for remaining there till the sunset of the ninth day of Thee Al-Hijja.

1- We mean by stopping at Arafat, reaching there and remain at that place, either on foot or by any other means of transportation, sitting or lying down, in other words, a pilgrim must remain in Arafat on the ninth day and do not leave that place for any reason.

2- Period of stopping: According to desirable and compulsory act, a pilgrim must remain in Arafat from midday (1) of the ninth day to the sunset (2) of the same day.

3- It is not compulsory for a pilgrim to perform ablution or ritual purity during his stop at Arafat and other Hajj rituals except for circumambulation and prayer, but it is desirable to be pure during those rituals also.
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1- Ayatollah Tabrizi: A pilgrim may delay his stop at Arafat for one hour after midday.

Ayatollah Sistani: A pilgrim may delay his stop at Arafat for performing ritual purity and prayer of the midday for an hour only.

Ayatollah Khaminaei: It does not matter for a pilgrim to delay his stop at Arafat in order to perform prayer of midday and its preludes.

2- Grand Ayatollahs Bahjat, Tabrizi and Sistani: up to sunset.
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4- A pilgrim must refrain of doing any kind of acts in Arafat except remaining there, but naturally there are various desirable acts to be achieved in Arafat, this place is a sacred one and one of the preferable places for prayer and supplication,
The best prayer and supplication on that day is reciting two well-known supplications for Imam Hussein and Imam Al-Sajjad (pbut).
      
Stopping at Arafat

Stopping at Al-Masher Al-Hiram (1)
(Third act of Hajj rituals)

After the sunset on the ninth day of lunar month Thee Al-Hijja, this coincides with the night of the greater bairam; all pilgrims leave Arafat heading for Masher
Al-Hiram or (Mozdalifah) in order to perform another act of Hajj rituals.

1- When pilgrims reach Masher Al-Hiram, and according to desirable and compulsory act (2) they must remain there till the sunrise on the next day, according to divine order, they must repeat intention to do so (3).
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1- Al-Masher Al-Hiram: It is a long valley located between “Arafat” and “Mina”
it is called Mozdalifah also; all pilgrims must remain the night of the greater bairam in that place.

2- Ayatollah Tabrizi and Ayatollah Zanjani: Remaining in Masher Al-Hiram before dawn is not compulsory, but it is desirable and precautionary step.

3- Ayatollah Khaminaei: Time of stopping in Masher Al-Hiram is from the dawn of the greater bairam till sunrise, but as a precautionary measure, a pilgrim must intend to remain there when he arrives there on the evening of the ninth day of Thee Al-Hijja.

Ayatollah Sistani: It is compulsory upon a pilgrim to stay at Masher Al-Hiram for a part of the night up to dawn of the next day after he leaves Arafat, then he continues his stay till sunrise………

Ayatollah Safi: Stopping over night at Masher Al-Hiram is compulsory.
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2- There is no compulsory act at Masher Al-Hiram except being there, although there are desirable deeds such as collecting pebbles and invocation of almighty God(1).
     
Al-Masher Al-Hiram

Picking pebbles at Masher Al-Hiram
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1- Ayatollah Safi: as a precautionary measure, a pilgrim should not forget his God at Masher Al-Hiram, even in a brief manner.

Ayatollah Zanjani: It is compulsory upon a pilgrim to remember his God and invoke him loudly.
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Throwing pebbles (The grand)
(Forth act of Hajj rituals)

1- After sunrise on the tenth day of lunar month Thee Al-Hijja, all pilgrims leave Masher Al-Hiram heading for Mina in order to perform other rituals of Hajj(1).

The greater bairam deeds are as follows:

*Throwing (2) pebbles at Akaba.
*Immolation.
*Hair shaving or shortening.

2- At the last point of Mina there three stony pillars, the first one is called ‘the first pebble”, the second is called “the middle pebble” while the third is called “Akaba”. First act upon a pilgrim is to throw seven pebbles at Akaba.
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1- Mina: It is a land located between two chains of mountains near Masher Al-Hiram.

2- Throwing: Pointing at the target or throwing the pebbles.
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3- All seven pebbles must hit the pillar (1). It is not compulsory to throw pebbles continuously, if it happened that two pebbles hit the pillar but the third did not, then the forth one hit the pillar, that means only three pebbles hit the pillar only, if a pilgrim was in doubt about the number of pebbles that hit the pillar, he must throw a number of pebbles till he becomes sure of hitting the pillar with seven pebbles.

4- Pebbles must be as follows:
*They must not be big or too small, but at the size that pilgrims accustomed to it.
*They must be collected from the holy mosque limits. For example, from Masher Al-Hiram, Mina or Mecca.
*They were not used in throwing before.
*They must not be unlawful.

5- Ladies, children and old ages individuals may leave Masher Al-Hiram after midnight and prior to dawn prayer, if they were not able of throwing pebbles at day time (3) they may do so at the evening of that day.
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1- Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi: Hitting the pillar is not compulsory for a pilgrim.
It is enough to throw pebbles around the pillar.

2- This judgment relates to the ladies on the morning of the greater bairam. But at the eleventh and twelfth days of Thee Al-Hijja, ladies may throw pebbles during night time if it was difficult for them to do so during day time.

3- Ayatollah Sistani: Any individual has a lawful excuse and he can not throw pebbles, as a sick individual foe example, he must deputize somebody to throw pebbles on behalf of him.
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Throwing pebbles from down Throwing pebbles from up

Immolation (Fifth act of Hajj rituals).

1- After throwing pebbles at grand Akaba, pilgrims head for the slaughterhouse in order to perform another act of Hajj rituals. They sacrifice one of the following animals: a camel, a cow or a sheep.

2- It is not possible to sacrifice one animal for a couple of pilgrims. One animal is the least that a pilgrim can offer for Hajj, although the more the better.

3- There are specified conditions for the animal being sacrificed; they were mentioned in Hajj rituals’ books. Those individuals that head to the slaughterhouse for choosing the animals, must be aware of those conditions, we shall talk about these conditions in brief:
*Animals must be in good health and not lean.
*Animals must not be old (1).
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1- Ayatollah Tabrizi, Ayatollah Sistani: As a precautionary measure and desirable act, the animal must not be ill and old.

Ayatollah Khaminaei: Young age for an animal is not a condition.
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*There must not be any deficiency in the animal, it must bear all organs.
*Animal must not be blind or lame.
*Animal must not be without tail.
*Animal’s ears must not be cut, and its horn must not be broken.
*Animal must not be lean.
*Animal must not be gelded.
*Animal must have reached full age, if it is a ewe a year would suffice, but if the animal was a goat, its age should be two full years. (All conditions have been mentioned in Hajj rituals’ books and the books of grand Ayatollahs in details).

4- After slaughtering, a pilgrim has to keep away from suspicions and the possibilities about the condition of the sacrifice (1).

5- An individual that did not shorten or shave his hair, or even did not sacrifice yet, may slaughter animals for other pilgrims.
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1- Ayatollah Fadel: During slaughter, if a pilgrim was sure of the animal he chose, but later he suspected the health condition of it, he must ignore those suspicions.
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Hair shaving or shortening (Sixth act of Hajj rituals).

1- After presenting sacrifice, a pilgrim must either shave his hair or shortening it, that is cutting a small portion of his hair clipping one of his nails.

2- Having performed shortening and shaving, all forbidden acts would be lawful for a pilgrim, except women and perfumes (1). Those unlawful acts would turn lawful after performing the rest of Hajj rituals, furthermore, hunting animals would still be forbidden at some specific circumstances.
Therefore, a pilgrim may take off ihram garment and put on his own clothes.

3- Those individuals that participate in Hajj for the first time, as a precautionary measure and desirable act must shave their hair; shortening hair would not be enough. With regard to those individuals who performed Hajj rituals before, they may shorten their hair or clip their nails.
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1- Ayatollah Sistani: Men and women are unlawful for each other, but they could witness marriage and recite its contraction.

2- Grand Ayatollahs: Bahjat, Tabrizi and Fadel: According to desirable precautionary measure.

Ayatollah Makarem: A person in this case may shave his hair or shortening it.

Ayatollah Zanjani: An individual that participates in Hajj for himself must shave his hair, even though it was not his first participation in Hajj.
     
Shortening Shaving

4- Ladies must shorten their hair.

5- Mina is the venue for shortening and shaving.

6- Time for shortening or shaving hair is up to the thirteenth day of lunar month of Thee Al-Hijja, although it is preferable to be done (1) on the day of greater bairam.

7- If a pilgrim deputized a person to sacrifice on behalf of him, the authorizer can not shorten or shave his hair prior to the sacrifice procedure by the deputy, therefore, those who do not attend sacrifice act at the slaughterhouse must not proceed with shaving and shortening their hair until they are informed or be sure of completion of sacrifice process.

8- A pilgrim that did not shorten or shave his own hair can not shave or shorten others’ hair.
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1- Ayatollah Khaminaei: This precautionary step is compulsory here.

Ayatollah Tabrizi: As a precautionary and compulsory act, sacrifice must take place on the day of greater bairam, if a pilgrim refrained from doing so on the day of greater bairam he has the choice and opportunity till the end of lunar month of Thee Al-Hijja.

Ayatollah Sistani: As a precautionary and desirable act, sacrifice must not be delayed to the end of the day of greater bairam; it is possible to delay it till the last rite of Hajj season in Thee Al-Hijja.
 
After a pilgrim has accomplished Hajj rituals in Mina, he must return to Mecca in order to achieve another five rites of Hajj season, although there is enough time to perform them till the end of lunar month of Thee Al-Hijja(1). A pilgrim may stay in Mina for performing remained acts of evenings of eleventh and twelfth of Thee Al-Hijja in addition to day time acts. He may leave Mina at the midday of the twelfth day of the same month heading for Mecca to complete the remained acts. Acts in Mecca are as follows:
A pilgrim must perform the following acts in Mecca:

1- Tawaf of Hajj (the seventh act of Hajj rituals).

2- Prayer of Tawaf (the eighth act of Hajj rituals).

3- Endeavor (Saia) between Safa and Marwah (the ninth act of Hajj rituals).

4- Tawaf Al-Nisaa (2) (the tenth act of Hajj rituals).

5- Prayer of Tawaf Al-Nisaa (the eleventh act of Hajj rituals).      
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1- Ayatollah Safi: As a precautionary measure, a pilgrim must not delay acts of Mecca.

2- Tawaf Al-Nisaa is a rite of Umrah and Hajj as well, men would be lawful to the women and vice versa after accomplishing Tawaf Al-Nisaa that was unlawful due to intention of ihram.
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* A couple of issues:

1- Procedures of acts after accomplishing Mina’s rites are the same as enjoyable omrah, with the exception of intention that differ in both cases.

2- Tawaf Al-Nisaa is the same as Tawaf (circumambulation) in omrah and its prayer, the only difference is that a pilgrim must intend to perform Tawaf Al-Nisaa here.

3- Tawaf Al-Nisaa does not belong to men only; it is a compulsory rite upon all participants in Hajj rituals (1).

4- After performing Hajj Tawaf and its prayer in addition to accomplishing endeavor between Safa and Marwah, a pilgrim may use perfume and scents(2), furthermore, after he achieves Tawaf Al-Nisaa and its prayer a wife would be lawful for her husband and vice versa that was forbidden due to ihram intention.

5- It is not obligatory to perform Tawaf Al-Nisaa right after endeavor between Safa and Marwah, a pilgrim has the choice to delay it to a couple of days, bearing in mind that a wife would not be lawful for her husband before achieving Tawaf Al-Nisaa and its prayer, the same matter applies for the husband.
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1- Umrah that is separated of Hajj includes Tawaf Al-Nisaa.

2- Ayatollah Safi: Hunting and women during Hajj are prohibited for a pilgrim, as a precautionary measure, prior to Tawaf Al-Nisaa and its prayer; a pilgrim must refrain from scents and sweet-smelling.
     
Mina

Passing the night in Mina is one of the compulsory acts of Hajj.

1- All pilgrims, either those who headed for Mecca after accomplishing their acts in Mina, or those who remained in Mina, they must stay in Mina on the evenings of eleventh and twelfth of the lunar month of Thee Al-Hijja from sunset (1) to midnight as a pious act towards almighty God, therefore those who left for Mecca must return to Mina before sunset.

2- Remaining in Mina is not compulsory for individuals such as sick people and their nurses in addition to those individuals who experience difficulties in remaining in Mina.
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1- Ayatollah Fadel: It is not far of reach that a pilgrim can spend the night to the second part of it.

Grand Ayatollahs Khaminaei, Makarem, Sistani and Tabrizi: It is possible for pilgrims to stay in Mina from sunset till a short time after midnight, or before midnight till dawn.

Ayatollah Zanjani: At the evening of eleventh of Thee Al-Hijja a pilgrim has the choice either to stay over night from the first half of it or from midnight till morning, in other words till dawn. But at the evening of twelfth and thirteenth of Thee Al-Hijja, and according to a precautionary step and compulsory act, a pilgrim must stay in Mina from sunset till sunrise of the next day, without trying to leave Mina, even for Tawaf (circumambulation) and endeavor between Safa and Marwah which are considered compulsory acts.
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*Those individuals who remain in Mecca from sunset till dawn embarking upon prayer and invocation to the almighty God and refrain from doing any unnecessary things except urgent ones.

*Those that remain in Mina and are worried of their belongings in Mecca.

*A pilgrim who refrains from spending the night in Mina has to sacrifice a ewe for each night he misses, but the pilgrim who spends his night in Mecca embarking upon prayer and invocation he does not have to give any atonement.
     
Throwing pebbles from down Throwing pebbles from up

Throwing the three pebbles (the thirteenth act of Hajj rituals).

*At the eleventh and the twelfth days of Thee Al-Hijja all pilgrims must throw seven pebbles at each one of the three pillars.

*Time of throwing pebbles: From sun rise to sunset of the same day. (At the day of the greater bairam or eleventh and twelfth days of Thee Al-Hijja).

It is prohibited to throw pebbles during night time (with the exception for those who have lawful excuses and are not able to do so during day time). (1) If a pilgrim refrained from throwing pebbles on the eleventh day of Thee Al-Hijja he must execute this action on the next morning and prior to throwing pebbles of the same day.

*Throwing procedure: The same procedure we described in throwing Al-Akaba Al-Kobra.

*Throwing order: Throwing at the first one, then the middle and finally Al-Akaba Al-Kobra.

On the twelfth day of Thee Al-Hijja pilgrims may leave Mina after midday call foe prayer, if some pilgrims remained in Mina till sunset of the same day they must stay over night of the thirteenth of Thee Al-Hijja and throw pebbles on the morning of next day.
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1- Ladies may throw pebbles at Akaba Al-Kobra, that is an act of the day of greater bairam, at the evening of the ninth day of Thee Al-Hijja, but they are not allowed to do so on the evenings of eleventh and twelfth days without a lawful excuse.
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Preferable circumambulation (Tawaf Al-Mostahab)

1- Tawaf around the sacred Kaaba is one of the preferable acts.

2- There is no difference between Tawaf Al-Mostahab (circumambulation) and the compulsory one, its prayer is recommendable also.

3- It is not important to perform prayer of Tawaf Al-Mostahab behind Abraham’s shrine; it is possible to do so at any spot in the holy mosque in Mecca, in particular during heavy congestion in which a pilgrim must observe other pilgrims’ status.

Farewell Tawaf (circumambulation)

1- It is recommendable for a pilgrim who intends to leave Mecca, after accomplishing Hajj rituals, to perform a farewell Tawaf (circumambulation).

2- Farewell Tawaf (Al-Wada) consists of seven stages; its prayer is recommended also.

3- It is recommended also to ask the almighty God good fortune for returning once more to his holy mosque.


source : sibtayn
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