Monday 23rd of May 2022
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The political dimension of religion in shiism


"Religion is equivalent to a complex of rules, which together with the essence and the moral substance, essays to correlate the acts of government with ideas of divine inspiration, to answer all needs in the political and the development of social life sphere."

According to Muslim religion, the religious rule stands for the vital duty to aspire to Good and to avoid Evil, aspect which involves the social organization and the cooperation between people in order to accomplish its future tasks.
Unlike in Occidental society where P^gmatism and Rationalism prevail, in Islamic society, religion and Politics are interdependent and they cannot exist without each other.

In the process of studying and defining religion towards social action, the founder's role takes an important aspect: "Religion is an ordinary symbolic binding, which through belief and religious ceremonies received from the creator; it can secure connection and permanence at the same time".

E.DURKHEIM offers a first sociological definition of religion: "A religion is a solidary system of beliefs and relative practices of sacred acts, namely, acts separated from the forbidden ones (beliefs, practices) which unify all believers in the same spiritual community, which is called church."

According to Islam, religion consists of "the totality of fundamental beliefs which refer to human nature and universe and apply to human life."

Etymologically speaking, the word Islam means "obedience" and "obedience" signifies submitting God's commands. Submitting means applying God's orders. The basic principles of Islamic belief are God, angels (malaaikah), books (kutubullah), messengers (rusulullah), Day of Judgement (yawmuddin), predestination (al-qadr), and life after death (akhirah).

The holy book of Islam is the Quran, which represents the main source of religious thinking in Islam and the traditional source as well of which formal and external aspects of religion derive. The seven principles are classified in three basic elements:

• Tawhid (God's oneness) is the most important part of iman (belief). According to this element: "God is omniscient and almighty. He is kind and merciful; he is present anytime anywhere, he is the First and the Last.

• Risalah is the means of communication between God and humanity. This element is the one designating God's "chosen" on earth, embodied by the Prophet (Mohamed) and the imams following him.
• Akhirah represents life after death. On preparing for the Doomsday; man is obliged to do what God asks him to through the "voice" of the Prophet (Mohamed) and of the imams following him.

On Imam Ali's view, religion can be defined as it follows: 'The basis of religion is God and the improvement of knowledge to confirm his existence. This veneration must be done without any doubt or hesitation, man being fully aware of God's merit, whom he has to follow. That is why God has chosen prophets among Adam's sons, who through revelation, allowed

them to bestow the content of religion by forbidding polytheism and by asking to move away from idols."
In the Vll-th century, MOHAMED, an Arab from a Bedouin tribe, preached a new religion which "confused" the world. This religion arose in the territories of present Saudi Arabia, in a perimeter dominated by the practice of religious concepts of "magi".

The new religion has ordered the worshipping of only one God and the destruction of idols. "Mohamed, aged 40, has begun his mission being supported by his wife, relatives and some friends and later by poor people, handicraftsmen, free people and slaves, like Bilal, the negro slave."

In 612, the prophet, as a result of a vision commanding him to make public his mission, started his apostolate by laying stress on "God's might and glory".
Mircea Eliade considered that: "Mohamed didn't intend to create a new religion. He just wanted to awake his fellow citizens and convince them they must worship God only, as he is the creator of Sky and Earth and the only guarantor of fertility."

In 622, Mohamed and his disciples left Mecca to Medina and there came to an agreement with other Arab groups, this moment being marked as the period of Arab expansion. In 624, Mohamed defeated the Meccans and for the first time the Prophet spoke to his followers about the holy war (JIHAD) against God's opponents.

In accordance with the quranic verses, Islam is the religion of peace and forgiveness, this representing the starting point in the Prophets' mission.
The quran imposes each follower to defend religion as duty and natural right: light in Islam is allowed and legal only when it is framed in a holy war. It pursues praising God's words and the revival of Islamic values, any other form of aggression not being permitted."

The first fundamental principle of Islam is the Monotheism, which is the belief in the unique God called Allah.
The second principle is being represented by the establishment of a social equity on the basis of the quranic verses, the Holy Book being assimilated with law.

The third principle is represented by the Prophets' role in social life. For individuals, the Prophecy consists in the sharing of Divine Law which was revealed by God to the Prophets in order to lead the world to perfection.

In Islam, it is said that: "priesthood (the imamate) represents the promotion and the establishment of divine law in society." Imam's duties are the following:
• The Imam has to be a model which people have to follow in every day life; he is the secular reflection of quranic virtues.
• He has to establish the order of the society and divide the responsibilities.
• The imam is supposed to change the divisions between Muslims into one unity as God sent prophets to guide people to unity, solidarity and moving away the differences between them.
• He has to promote virtues and forbid evil.
• He has to set equity and social right, to prevent aggression and discourage social deviation and corruption.
• The Imam is the one leading the war against enemies and divides properties and income.
• He has to organize the pray ritual.

2. Shiism, the historical moment of division

The term Shiism has appeared making reference to Imam Ali's followers, the first ruler of Prophet's house and the one who first embraced the Islamic religion. He was assured

after Mohamed's death he would be called his successor and heir. The supreme proof for the shiits that Ali was the legitimate successor of the Prophet was the Ghadir Kuhumn event, when Mohamed assigned Ali as the major protector (walayat-immah).
After the Prophet's death, Ali's partisans believed the caliphate and the religious authority (marjaya-ilmi) belonged to him. Instead, the Prophet's close friends didn't appoint Imam Ali their caliph, situation which led to division and the forming inside Islam of the "Ali's partisans - the shiah" minority. This minority was first condemned due to the political circumstances of the moment.

The fist appointed Caliph, Abu Bakr, also called "the imam of God" (khalifat al-rasul), has designated Omar as his successor in 634, to whose succession followed Othman who was killed in 644.

The new caliph of Medina was appointed Imam Ali, circumstance which marked the short ascension of the shiits. Due to the divergences with Muavie, the governor of Syria, there took place many military confronts which finally determined some of Ali's adepts to leave him (the kharigits).
In 661, at Kuffa, one kharigit assassinated Ali, moment which coincided with Muavie's appointment as the new caliph of Medina and which marked the beginning of the dark period of Shiism.

The differences between Shiits and Sunnis don't lie in principles but in spirit "Shiism has doubts in accepting the idea of majority and pursues the ethic superiority of an active minority or the rational defense of oppressors". This idea was expressed, in 683, in the fundament of revolt of Imam Hossein and the other 72 allies of his, revolt which ended with his martyrdom at Kerballah.

The doctrinaire essence of Shiism could be summarized in the expression "Great Hope", which consists in the final victory over oppression and oppressors, through the appearance of the divinized Imam, (mahdaviat).
"Over the history, the appearance of the savior Imam prepared the collective conscience in order to face Mahdy's revolution and the world-wide reform."

The Mahdaviate followed up the religious rebirth by respecting Prophets' experiences and considered the incomplete temporary rebirths as dangerous, being known they couldn't determine people adhere to religion unless a sacred personality pertaining to the Prophets' category was present among them.

The Iranian philosopher, Dr. A. Souroush stated that: "The Mahdaviate is accepted in our religious society. It is part of the religious life of our nation both before the Islamic Revolution and moreover, in present, when Islamic government is developing. Mahdy's epiphany will usher in for the Islamic world a new era of justice and wealth."

3. Philosophy- Politics and the great thinkers of Islam

One of the greatest philosophers of Islam, FARABI (257-338 according to selenary calendar), brought a major contribution to the political philosophy of Islam. He was the one who debated upon the bases of political judgment and social ideas with regard to town in the Islamic world.
According to FARABI's conception, Politics is part of Philosophy or of a well organized system, presented by philosophers like a rational structured organism.
The tradition FARABI followed in elaborating the political thought was taken over from the great philosophers of ancient Greece, Platon and Aristotle. Two of his most important

philosophical works are The Civil Politics and Judgments of the inhabitants of the city of
Utopia (Judgments of Utopia's inhabitants).
'The Civil Politics" presented a hierarchy of existence:
1. origin in primary condition;
2. origin in secondary condition;
3. active reason in third condition;
4. instinct in fourth condition;
5. form in fifth condition;
6. substance in sixth condition;

Further on, the author defined and explained each condition reaching "the tenth reason", also called "active reason", which, in his opinion, would be responsible for the way the spiritual and material existence of human being are organized. His conclusion is that perfection can be reached provided that people get rid of their savage instincts and leave aside the material world.

In Judgments of Utopia's inhabitants, reasoning followed the same direction except for it was much more detailed.
The first chapter, Introduction to the primary essence, described man as having no defects and acquiring eternal existence and absolute perfection. In the next chapters, the author spoke about God's oneness and his qualities.
The philosopher described the way existent things take shape and depicted the hierarchy of existence in the chapter Introduction to the world's appearance from primary cause. In depicting the world, FARABI inspired himself from the tradition of Greek philosophy, familiar to him from the Neo-Platonists' work.

In the fifth chapter, FARABI, mentioned that man's way to virtue depends on the urban community which can stimulate dignified good acts of the urban inhabitants and of peoples in general, making possible the aspiration for the accomplishment of this ideal. All this social structure is possible only in the presence of a leader who encourages good manners in his town and helps people understand and respect laws.

This system called monarchy or ruling is elected by people. Therefore, through Politics it is understood the definite expression of people.
FARABI considered that man's perfection arises from the collaboration of two spiritual forces, the theoretical reason which is gifted to understand the truth and the practical reason, which perceives beautiful perfect things, contributing to people's understanding of dignified true acts. In conclusion, man differs from animal by the uncommon strength of will, called choice.
Choice is a more profound and more rational conscience than meanings and imagination. Choice represents an aspiration to perfection and the procedure in order to reach it. According to FARABI, man is above all a social human being. Solitude impoverishes him and finally makes him loose humanity and qualities that represent the basic condition to reach happiness.

FARABI stated that society has two basic components:
• The complete society (humanity (big), nations (medium), town (small), and confession).
• The incomplete society (family, rural environment).
The philosopher appreciated that only in complete societies man can aspire to virtue and supreme perfection. He developed the concept of a worldwide community whose ruler must be the leader of the entire civilized world not only of a nation or of community.

Continuing FARABI's work, ABUL HASSAN AMERI considered that "man in his essence is a social being and only the keeping of good traditions (sunnat) might lead him to happiness. Tradition is an explanation given to reason and teaches man how to avoid and distinguish between meanness. Politics is a proper transposition of customs by politician in city's social life. The politician is indebted to rule people firmly to the goal dictated by tradition. His goal consists in accomplishing every person's welfare in accordance with his needs."
In AMERI's view, wisdom, honor, courage and sense of justice embodied the same meanings and features like in Platon and Aristotle's.

AMERI divided cities in good ones (Utopian) and bad ones (anti-Utopian). Speaking of equity and inequity, he suggested the tyrant to respect tradition accrediting the idea that respecting law is compulsory for everyone, even for prophets like MOHAMED and Imam AL AMERI specified that proper Politics is
determined by two elements:
• Tradition and proper appliance of laws;
• Politician's dignity and wisdom;
When these factors strengthen, society will be able to reach happiness. The stability of a society is assured if good traditions are respected and the politician is dignified. Bad customs always lead to the weakening of the society and unworthy politicians determine disagreements between people and even worse they cause the destruction of the society.

In AMERI's opinion, the best tradition belongs to the Islamic religion, and in his vision, the Persian king embodies the best politician. In his paper, Alsaadatol Assad, AMERI considers that "God created kings to materialize his wishes and to protect slaves. This is why I say kings are God's followers on earth. God appointed them in their position and not people. God Almighty appointed him Monarch and not those who are being ruled and aspire to perfection.

AMERI mentioned three fundamental elements, which pave the Monarch the way to
- Education, legislation and the system of moral standards.
- Ruling projects depending on demographic factors, the support for handicraftsmen.
- Election of high officials, ministers and counselors among submissive.
The monarch can reach perfection and integrity if he respects the right prophecy and the consolidation of the perfect kingdom. AMERI believed that Politics cannot reach the wisdom necessary to lead society to happiness, unless there is a connection between the Imam and the Monarch. This approach of Politics is called Imamat. Kingdom does not infringe The Imamate, the perfect kingdom is the Imamate, and politician is God's representative.

The worst kingdom is that of tyranny and its goal is to enslave people and impoverish the society.
AMERI appreciated that the Islamic prophet is a man embodying both Prophecy and Kingdom. The result of his actions conducts to the grandeur prosperity and nations' progress, driving the tyrants away from their throne.
The greatest merit of the Prophet was that he brought with him the good traditions, which are the basis of religious principles, traditions that he implemented in the social life of the strongest kingdoms, consolidating important dynasties.

Thus, if Shariah relies on these factors, Prophet's followers, politicians and kings relying on tradition and Prophet's preaching become the Imams of their times.
Moreover, these people are perceived as sources of forgiveness and divine mercy for the whole world, attitude, which should be followed by the entire humanity.

ABUZEID ABDULRAHMAN IBN KHALDUN, considered "the sociologist of tyranny", was one of the most important philosophers of the Islamic world. He witnessed two major historical events: the dissolution of the state of the Seljuciz Turks by the Othmans and the forming of the Mongolic state. IBN KHALDUN met TAMERLAIN six months before his death, during besiege of Damascus.

That period was one of transition, Europe passing from Middle to Modern Ages. IBN KHALDUN was born 11 years after Dante's death being contemporary with Boccacio and Petrarca. It has to be mentioned that soon after the Muslim philosopher's death, printing press was invented. All his work and especially Muqaddama were spread by the Othman kings. Multilateral research of Politics during early Islam didn't find place in the ideological circles of Islam resuming itself to quotations and legends chosen according to the moment. In IBN KHALDUN's view: 'The more crisis and struggle for power were increasing; emotional confrontation was amplifying, situation which drew the attention upon certain sects and confessions and less upon tyranny.

Therefore, the tyrant, member of a sect, was being adulated by his adepts who believed by the force he was empowered with he could eliminate the enemies existent in social life." IBN KHALDUN exposed the idea that: 'Tyranny is an inevitable natural form of Politics in all human communities, and it can be compared with the stars' move, plants' growing and with maternal love, elements which lie at the basis of humanity's perpetuation.

The philosopher considered the Utopian town as fantastic but unreal. This statement bases on the idea that: "Humanity needs society being obliged to have a leader. The ruler's acts must rely on Shariat, all members of the community being obliged to respect the laws which were sent to them by Divinity."
For Muslim kings, Politics must be done in compliance with Shariat, and the promulgated laws must be of divine inspiration consenting the aspirations to enrichment and the fanatical manifestations of the king.

IBN KHALDUN defined human society as: "the mutual coexistence of people in a specific city, or in one of its arias, based on the relations of ethnical kinship and aiming at satisfying personal necessities, as cooperation in the name of existence is determined by human being's nature."
In this sense, IBN KHALDUN considered that the most obvious example would be TAHER IBN HOSSEIN's letter to his son ABDULLAH IBN TAHER, which was a collection of religious, ethical and political rules conceived in order to rule the kingdom: "King is one of the members of society, situated on its highest rank, and rules people so that nobody can hurt community. Therefore, the sense of the existence of monarchy consists in this."

IBN KHALDUN appreciated that the followers of the Holy Book (the Quran) and of the Prophet are in minority compared to the followers of Other Books (the Bible, the Tore), whom he called pagans. He considered them numerically superior, situation which would facilitate the building of cities and states.
Thus, the philosopher stated that: "there's no need to bring any other arguments which to prove the necessity of prophecy except for the belief in the existence of prophecy and the maintaining of order through Shariat. Monarchy known during the entire history of humanity is the supreme power held by a member of society in order to maintain order."

The book "Introduction" is divided in six parts, each of it approaching human society with the mention that the third part explicitly treats the notions of city, state, caliphate, monarchy and hierarchy of government.

The city is governed by a wise ruler who in IBN KHALDUN's vision is vested with power so that he wouldn't let anyone hurt the citizens. In defending the city from the attacks of the enemies he uses the force of guns. "In Bedouin society, appreciated and respected old men assume their authority, stopping the members of the tribe acting violent one each other. In case of an outer aggression courageous young soldiers assume their role as protectors, therefore the duty of defending the country can be accomplished provided that the defenders should be fanatics."

IBN KHALDUN added: "In case of danger, such a fanatic attitude, to which task is protecting people, residences and lands, is necessary. Prophecy and the forming of State cannot be accomplished without fight being known disobedience is a characteristic of human nature. Man cannot be asked to do a thing or other without being convinced or obliged by means of war.

The philosopher was convinced that the best example of tight ethnical relations can be noticed in "the environment of those leading a similar way of life to that of Arab Bedouins, the existent social order impeding the relations between different tribes (Marriages to people from different ethnics)", IBN KHALDUN referred to the existence of a basic factor in society and Politics which he called "priority force".

Therefore: "the central power can appear only in one clan but not in all. As this cannot be instituted except with the victory upon the others, it is necessary that the thirst for power of the clan's members to be stronger than the other forms of fanaticism. When defeating all, they'll be empowered to rule forever. Hence, power is always maintained by a specific fanaticism of a certain clan."
Analyzing the bases of social life, the author drew the conclusion that fanaticism led to the foundation of monarchy which represents the final form of expressing fanaticism. In KHALDUN's view, not any ruler can be called shah, and not any public order can be a monarchy.

In conclusion: "King (shah) and monarchy represent the highest stages of progress which human society can reach. In other words, although tyranny is a cause of the forming and consolidation of power, obedience towards ruler isn't bound to violence but to his natural superiority and authority, universal fanaticism being a guarantee of the efficiency ui authority. Still, these conditions aren't always and forever enough to rule.
Monarchy is tyranny and it is superior to ruling because ruling means control and the one who detains the power even if he is a ruler he doesn't use violence in the relations with his obedient, while monarchy means control and rule based on violence.

Monarchy initially developed into tribes with various infrastructure and different dispositions. Kingdom, consisting in all people embracing fanatical principles, appeared there where fanaticism was stronger. Hence, it can be stated that tyranny is the last stage of fanaticism.
IBN KHALDUN appreciated that: "In Politics, monarchy promotes the Good and the Dignity. The monarch is respectable to be God's deputy on earth. He is an intermediary between divinity and state and has the duty to rule the latter. He is highly regarded for his status to which origin stays in fanaticism. Monarchy is a necessity of collective life and requires legislation and order. If laws are elaborated by wise officials, the prevailing Politics of the State is wise and if laws are of divine provenience, Politics is religious". IBN KHALDUN divided political rule of society in three categories:
1. natural monarchy (people's life develops according to necessities and its innate feelings);
2. political monarchy (based on the rational rule of society in the name of utility and of getting rid of the sins committed in laic life);
3. the caliphate (social rule according to Shariat with the purpose of satisfying the laic interests and those related to the belief in life after death, in this case Politics being ruled by God's deputy on earth on behalf of protecting religion and human society.)

Several harmful aspects and phenomena can characterize monarchy but overall it does not contain a negative prevalent role. Religion does not utter monarchy must be given up but only judges its passions and violence: the purpose of religious precepts does not mean giving up reason but its use in an adequate way. When monarchy brings violence and cruelty with it, Shariat forbids it considering it prejudicial to the society."
IBN KHALDUN considered that: "old people's assembly must appoint the Imam and nation must obey this appointment because God said: Obey God, the Prophet and your rulers. In order for the Imam to be elected he must be endowed with four qualities: knowledge, thirst for justice, competence, and mental and physical health."

As for the confrontation between Imam Ali and Muavie, it represented the anxieties during the period of transition and the war against fanaticism, which appeared after a period of religious domination. Even if he appreciated that, in this war, justice belonged to Imam Ali, he did not blame Muavie, as he considered the latter was not bad intentioned either: "when monarchy imposed an absolutist-monopolizing ruling, MUAVIE embraced fanaticism."

On brief, IBN KHALDUN concluded that: 'lanaticism is a phenomenon gradually developing which will not disappear but which can considerably change under the influence of religion. The hereditary election of the follower would not be specific to the religious precepts as ruling is a condition given by God to the Imam whom he chose to rule."

4. The relation between religion and power

Asabady, born in Iraq, played an important role among the contemporary thinkers of Islam. He considered "internal dictatorship and colonialism as the great enemies of the Islamic societies".

During his journeys to Asia, he advised Muslims to assimilate occidental science but still to keep some reserves towards it. He supported stoutly: "interdependence between Politics and religion and each Muslim's necessity to involve in the Politics of the country". Asabady stressed the idea of Islamic unity, which he considered more than necessary, because it reduces the external danger and strengthens the collective conscience.
He was one of the thinkers who had a major role in Islamic acknowledgment of the notion of Jihad (holy fight). Asabady's ideas inspired the ayatollah Khomeini the ruler of the Islamic revolution and the founder of the first Islamic Republic: "Asadabady tried to prove that Islam represents the foundation of an ideology guiding to prosperity and moral success of people and tried to make clear social philosophy and Islamic laws by defining the secondary elements of religion. From his Islamic position he opposed Occidental culture and way of thinking announcing the national revolution against English, in Iraq, in 1920."

The same conceptual approach was used in 1963 by the Imam Khomeini who opposed the Shah's reforms and started "the White Revolution" by denouncing the connections established by the Shah with the United States and Israel. The word "politics" used in Persian is of Arab origin and derives from "sas" and "iasus". It has more significance, the most important one being "absolute ruling".

A basic principle of Iranian Politics is found in Imam Hossein's testament: "I do not selfishly oppose against corruption and oppression. My goal is guiding Muslims according to Islamic precepts. I consider that one who does not obey the Holy Book and does not act for justice and respect for the true way cannot be called Imam or ruler. In Islam, right to legislation and appliance of laws belongs to prophets." The Islamic government's goals are:
• Use of wealth and budget in the interest of the Islamic nation.
• Defense of Islam and nation.
• Providing security and humans' peaceful life.
• Protection of weak people.

When Islamic Revolution burst, the Imam Khomeini expressed his intention to fight against tyranny (the shah's), dependence on foreign powers, and corruption and to institute a society based on Islamic principles: "the idea that religion must break up with Politics and Muslim scientists should not get involved in political and social affairs is a strategy launched by colonialists. Not only that Islam isn't separated from Politics but even it is the religion of Politics, prayers having political substance."

Dr. Abolhamid from the University of Teheran appreciated that: "Islamic revolution corresponds to a fundamental change both in social, moral, economic, juridical sphere and moreover in the political one. Violence is often used in removing a political regime, situation which causes human victims.

In Khomeini's opinion, the origin of Islamic Revolution should be regarded from Iranian and Lebanese Shifts' point of view that supported the Islamic renaissance. Three fundamental principles lie at the basis of this concept and they are:
1. the Islamic constitutional movement;
2. the spread of Islam;
3. martyrdom.
In Iran, the 1906 constitutional revolution was the symbol of the confrontation between Islamic culture and tradition and occidental values.

Due to the misunderstandings between modern fundamentalists and conservationists-traditionalists regarding to the establishment of the Islamic state, constitutional revolution was soon over, making way to anarchy. In these circumstances, in 1911, Russia supported the institution of a dictatorship regime. After the assassination of two representatives of the Iranian Clerics, in 1961 and 1962, Imam Khomeini became marji al-taghid, the supreme juridical and religious authority. In 1963, he made reference to the Islamic revolution and asked people to adhere to his ideas.

In 1979, Imam Khomeini proclaimed the Islamic republic in Iran and Islam became state religion, the Islamic state being ruled by an Imam who would impose, by governing, the basic principles of Islam.

According to the great ayatollah Mohamed Bakr Al-Sadr, the Islamic governing shouldn't rely on Individualism and the uninvolvement of the individual in the society or on the imperialists or social values. The Islamic state is similar to God's state, it is neither absolutist or tyrannical to respect the rules mentioned in the Coran being a must for the governors.

The Islamic state has two spheres:
1. Internal, which bases on the applying of the Islamic rules and on the creation and education of the Islamic identities.
2. External, the promotion of Islam across the world, the support for poor Muslims in their fight against Imperialism and Communism, the assurance of material-spiritual security of the Islamic nation.

5. Islam and Terrorism

After the burst of the Middle East crisis, in great part, caused by Israel's creation in 1948, the imminence of a conflict between Occidental civilization assimilated to Christianity and the oriental one dominated by the Islamic values has become obvious. The dispute between Jewish and Muslims for the Holy City reached its peak during crusades, this confrontation between the Occident and the Islamic world taking one of the most violent facets -the terrorism.

The Afghan mujahediins, disposing of American technology and funds generously offered by Saudi Arabia, have obtained a historical victory over the orthodox Russians. For Islam, this victory may be considered as important as Jerusalem's freeing by the caliph Sallahudin.
This moment represented a turning point for Islam and gave hopes to the millions of Muslims to continue Jihad till the final victory over the Infidels.
Another reference point on the international terrorism spiral constituted 2001, September 11-th event, when the most representative symbols of American civilization

embodied by The Twin Towers (bourse- finance) and The Pentagon (military force) were stricken.
It was obvious for everyone that Samuel Hungtington's prophecies were justifying the collision between civilizations which had reached its critical point.
The entire Islamic world was to suffer due to the anti-Islamic campaign, terms like Islamic terrorist and Muslim fundamentalist being associated to it.

In the Quran, the word "jihad" means "the supreme effort in order to accomplish a goal" and it also can be interpreted as "a means of sacrifice for God's cause in order to eliminate dishonest people and to re-establish a correct new system." The Jihad's goals are presented in the Coran as it follows:
• To broaden belief in God and to accept unconditionally his commands (Fight against your enemies in the way God asked you to.)
• To help weak and oppressed people (What indeed stops you to fight for God's cause and for vulnerable defenseless people?)
• To cease persecution (Fight against your enemies by believing in God and do not commit aggressions. Muslims are not allowed to use any weapons and burning people alive or committing acts of cruelty a^e forbidden by God when waging Jihad.) The notion of Islamism particularly used after 1980 by the ultra-nationalist Arab

organization "Muslim Brothers" to which adept it was, should be very well understood. This term represents "the political measures resulting from Islam which pursues to use religion in freedom and fight's ideology".
Hence, the supreme expression of Islamism is fundamentalism, which is an infrastructure, common to radical movements, and able to generate resistance to the secularization and inequity process by the constant use of religious conditions." Moreover, Hassan Al-Banna, founder of "Muslim Brothers" organization released the doctrine: "neither west nor east, but Islamic republic".

Presently, the Islamic world is looking for a means of communication with the Occident and the Christian Values. Tradition and new philosophical Iranian thinking consider the dialogue is necessary because world relies on individual's liberty and independent will. The fact that there is an iranian concept 'THE DIALOGUE BETWEEN CIVILIZATIONS", Teheran makes great efforts to calm the regional situation and to normalize Iran's relations with the International Community, represents a first step made by Islam for the inter-confessional reconciliation.

It is important to mention that International Community shows an increased interest in iranian's thesis, this representing one of the viable constructive solutions for Middle East crisis.
The fact that European sociologists among whom we find follow with great interest the present operative situation from Iraq and Autonomic Palestinian Territories is the natural result of Romania's involvement in the peaceful settlement of the conflicts which afflict the Islamic World.

The Publishing of some valuable papers, which I consulted as bibliographical source, made possible the elaboration of the present dissertation with regard to a new increased interest theme approached during the course.
It is not settled yet whether Pentagon's plans to destroy "The Axis of Evil" would continue in the future with an invasion in Iraq, plan stated also by the American president G.W. BUSH on his re-investiture at White House. It looks like the project is temporarily postponed from both circumstantial purposes (Iraqian crisis and the respect of the traveling warrant for the Palestinian problem) and diplomatic purposes.

Samuel Hungtington - 'The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order" M. Hosein Tabatai - "Shiism in Islam" Mohammad Khatamy - "Fear of the Wave" Morteza Motahari - "Man and Belief Alvin Tofler-'The third Wave"
Ali Beman Eghbalizarch - "Religion and Politics in the Islamic World" April 2008, Bucharest
BIRCA MIRCEA, FACULTY of SOCIOLOGY, from Bucharest University


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