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Wednesday 10th of August 2022
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The wisest among the people of his time

It is unanimously believed that `Ali was the wisest among the people of his time. All people resorted to him learning from his rational and transmitted science. There are proofs testifying to what we have said:

First: `Ali ibn Abi-Talib was extremely clever and intelligent, having a hunger for knowledge. He was a constant company of the Holy Prophet, from childhood to the day the Messenger of Allah departed from this world, benefiting from the ocean of his knowledge. Evidently, the Holy Prophet (s.a) was superior to all human beings and his knowledge was above all. Naturally such an intelligent and clever student who accompanied such a perfect man and was hungry for knowledge on the one hand and the student’s interest in learning from childhood till the end of his life had made `Ali a student of high capacity who was walking in a path leading to the zenith of perfection on the other.[43]

Second: `Ali’s superiority over the people of his time is that God Almighty has said of him: “… and the retaining ear might retain it” (69:12). Tha`labi, a Sunni commentator, in interpreting the verse says: The Messenger of Allah said to `Ali: I called on God Almighty to make you a true example of this verse.

Abu-Nasir Hafi¨, the Shafi`ite, has related: The Messenger of Allah said to `Ali: God Almighty has ordered me to call you and teach you the knowledge so that you will retain it. The above mentioned verse was revealed on the same occasion. O `Ali, you have the hearing ear and are the retainer of knowledge.[44]

Third: `Ali’s superior knowledge is that the Messenger of Allah said, “`Ali is the most competent among you in relation to judgment.”

Evidently, passing a fair judgment requires an in-depth knowledge and full faith. Since `Ali was the most competent and qualified, his knowledge too was certainly above all.[45]

Bayhaqi quoted `Ali as having said: The Holy Prophet (s.a) gave me the mission to set out to Yemen for passing judgment among them. Being surprised by the order and its referring to me, I said: O Messenger of Allah! Do you assign me a judge while I am still too young not knowing

العِلْمُ:

وَقَدْ أجْمَعَ النَّاسُ كافَّةً عَلَى أنَّ عَلِيَّ بنَ أَبِي طالِبٍ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ كانَ أعْلَمَ أهْلِ زَمانِهِ وَمِنْهُ اسْتَفادَ النَّاسُ جَميعَ العُلومِ العَقْلِيَّةِ وَالنَّقْلِيَّةِ، وَيَدُلُّ عَلَى ذَلِكَ وُجُوهٌ:

الأوَّلُ: إنَّ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طالِبٍ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ كانَ فِي غايَةِ الذَّكاءِ وَالفِطْنَةِ شَديدَ الحِرْصِ عَلَى التَّعَلُّمِ عَظيمَ المُلازَمَةِ لِرَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ لَيْلاً وَنَهاراً مِنْ صِغَرِ سِنِّهِ إلَى حينَ مُفارَقَتِهِ وَهوَ أكمَلُ أشْخاصِ البَشَرِ عِلْماً وَفَضْلاً. وَمِنَ المَعْلومِ بِالضَّرورَةِ أنَّ مِثلَ هَذَا التِّلْميذِ المُلازِمِ لِهَذِهِ المُلازَمَةِ لِهَذا المُعَلِّمِ الكامِلِ مَعَ شِدَّةِ حِرْصِ المُعَلِّمِ عَلَى التَّعْليمِ وَحِرْصِ المُتَعَلِّمِ علَى التَّعَلُّمِ فإنَّ التِّلْميذَ فِي غايَةِ الكَمالِ وَنِهايَةِ الفَضْلِ وَالعِلْمِ.

وَهَذا بُرهَانٌ قَطْعِيٌّ لاَ خِلافَ فيهِ.

الثَّاني: قَالَ اللهُ تَعالَى فِي حَقِّهِ: ﴿وَتَعِيَهَا أُذُنٌ وَاعِيَةٌ﴾. رَوَى الثَّعلَبِيُّ فِي تَفسيرِهِ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ سَأَلْتُ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجلَّ أنْ يَجْعَلَها أُذُنَكَ يَا عَلِيُّ.

وَرَوى أَبُو نَعيمٍ الْحَافِظُ الشَّافِعِيُّ بإسْنادِهِ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: يَا عَلِيُّ إنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجلَّ أَمَرَنِي أَنْ أُدْنِيَكَ وَأُعَلِّمَكَ فَأُنْزِلَتْ هَذِهِ الآيَةُ ﴿وَتَعِيَهَا أُذُنٌ وَاعِيَةٌ﴾ فَأنْتَ أُذُنٌ واعِيَةٌ لِعِلْمِي.

الثَّالثُ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: أقْضاكُمْ عَلِيٌّ.

وَالقَضَاءُ يَسْتَلْزِمُ العِلْمَ وَالدِّينَ. فَإذَا كانَ أقْضى مِنْ غَيْرِهِ وَجَبَ أنْ يَكونَ أعْلَمَ مِنهُ.

وَرَوى البَيهَقيُّ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: بَعَثَنِي رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ إلَى اليَمَنِ فَقُلْتُ: بَعَثْتَني وَأنا شابٌّ أَقْضي بَيْنَهُمْ وَلا أدْري مَا القَضاءُ. فَضَرَبَ فِي صَــدْري

the principles of judgment! The Holy Prophet (s.a) put his hand on my chest, prayed for me and said: O Lord! Guide his hear, make his tongue steadfast in telling the truth. `Ali said: By the God who cleaves a grain in the earth, after this prayer, I did not pass any judgment between two persons in which there was a bit of doubt.[46]

Nasa’i, in his book of Sahih, and Ahmad ibn Hanbal, in Musnad, have reported `Ali as saying: When the Messenger of Allah sent me to Yemen for judgment among people and I was very young, I said to the Messenger of Allah: You are sending me to people among whom there are many differences and hostilities in relation to legal problems and I do not have experience in passing legal judgment. The Holy Prophet (s.a) said: God Almighty will guide you tongue in telling the truth and will keep your heart steadfast so that you will judge among people without having any doubt.[47]

Fourth: Salman Farsi reports: the Holy Prophet (s.a) has said: The most knowledgeable among my Ummah after me will be `Ali ibn Abi-Talib.[48]

Fifth: The eloquent of Khawarizm and `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud have reported the Holy Prophet (s.a) as saying: Wisdom has been divided into ten parts, none parts of which have been given to `Ali and the people have been given just one part of it.[49]

Sixth: Tirmidhi has quoted the Holy Prophet as saying: I am the city of knowledge and `Ali is its gate.[50]

Baghawi, in Sihah, has reported the Holy Prophet (s.a) as saying: I am a collection of wisdom and `Ali is the gate of it.[51]

Ibn `Abbas has quoted the Holy Prophet (s.a) as saying: I am the city of knowledge and `Ali the gate thereof. Therefore, anyone who wishes to enter it should go through its gate.[52]

Khawarizmi has quoted Ibn `Abbas on the authority of the Holy Prophet: I am the city of wisdom and `Ali is the gate thereof. Therefore, whoever longs for wisdom should enter the city through its gate.[53]

Seventh: Baghawi, in Sihah, has quoted Abil-Hamra' on the authority of the Holy Prophet as saying: Whoever wishes to understand about the knowledge of Adam, the perception of Noah, the piety of John, and the power of Moses, should look at `Ali, for he has all the virtues of these men altogether.

وَقالَ: اللَّهُمَّ إِهْدِ قَلْبَهُ وَثَبِّتْ لِسَانَهُ. قَالَ: فَوَالَّذي فَلَقَ الْحَبَّةَ مَا شَكَكْتُ بَعْدَها فِي قَضاءٍ بَيْنَ اثْنَيْنِ.

وَرَوى النَّسائِيُّ فِي صَحيحِهِ وَأحمَدُ بنُ حَنْبل فِي مُسْنَدهِ قَالَ: قَالَ عَلِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: بَعَثَني رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِهِ إلَى اليَمَنِ وَأنا حَديثُ السِّنِّ. قَالَ: قُلتُ: يَا رَسولَ اللهِ تَبْعَثُني إلَى قَومٍ يَكونُ بَيْنَهُمْ أحْداثٌ وَلا عِلْمَ لي بِالقَضَاءِ. قَالَ: إنَّ اللهَ سَيَهْدي قَلْبَكَ وَيُثَبِّتُ لِسانَكَ. فَما شَكَكْتُ فِي قَضاءٍ بَيْنَ اثنَينِ بَعْدَهُ.

الرَّابعُ: رَوَى سَلْمانُ الفارِسِيُّ قَالَ: قَالَ رسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: أعْلَمُ أُمَّتي بَعْدي عَلِيُّ بنُ أَبِي طالِبٍ.

الخَامسُ: رَوَى أخْطَبُ خَوارِزمَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بنِ مَسْعودٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: قُسِّمَتِ الحِكْمَةُ عَلى عَشرَةِ أجْزاءٍ فَأُعْطِيَ عَلِيُّ بنُ أَبِي طالِبٍ مِنْها تِسْعَةً وَالنَّاسُ جُزءاً واحِداً.

السَّادِسُ: رَوَى التِّرمِذِيُّ فِي صَحِيحِهِ أنَّ رَسولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ: أنَا مَدينَةُ العِلْمِ وَعَلِيُّ بابُها.

وَذَكَرَ البَغَويُّ فِي الصِّحاحِ أنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ: أنَا دارُ الحِكْمَةِ وَعَلِيٌّ بابُها.

وعَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: أنَا مَدينَةُ العِلْمِ وَعَلِيٌّ بابُها. فَمَنْ أرادَ العِلْمَ فَلْيأْتِ البَابَ.

وَرَوى الخَوارِزميُّ عنِ ابنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: أنَا مَدينَةُ الحِكْمَةِ وَعَلِيٌّ بابُها. فَمَنْ أرادَ الحِكْمَةَ فَلْيَأْتِ البابَ.

السَّابعُ: رَوَى البَغَويُّ فِي الصِّحاحِ عَنْ أَبِي الحَمْراءِ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَنْ أرادَ أنْ يَنْظُرَ إلَى آدَمَ فِي عِلْمِهِ وَإلى نوحٍ فِي فَهْمِهِ وإلى يَحيى بنِ زَكَرِيَّا فِي زُهْدِهِ وَإلى مُوسى بنِ عِمْرانَ فِي بَطْشِهِ فَلْيَنْظُرْ إلَى عَلِيِّ بنِ أَبِي طالِبٍ.

Bayhaqi has reported that the Holy Prophet (s.a) said: Whoever wishes to find out about Adam’s knowledge, Noah’s piety, Abraham’s friendliness, Moses’ power and Jesus’ worship, should look at `Ali, for he has all these virtues.[54]

In the book of al-Manaqib, the following is recorded: Harith A`war Hamdani has reported that the Holy Prophet who was among his companions says: I will soon show you Adam in his knowledge, Noah in his insight and Abraham in his friendliness. At this time, `Ali joined the Holy Prophet’s companions. Abu-Bakr who was present said: O Messenger of Allah! You have compared a man with three prophets, happy will be this man. Now let us know who this man is. The Holy Prophet (s.a) said: Do you not know him? Abu-Bakr said: No, messenger of Allah, for His messenger knows better. The Holy Prophet (s.a) said: That man is `Ali ibn Abi-Talib. Turning approvingly to `Ali, Abu-Bakr said: May you enjoy these virtues. O Abul-Hasan, is there anyone like you who has such a high position?[55]

`Ali has also been quoted as saying: By God, no single verse of the Qur’an was revealed whose occasion and place of revelation I did not know. Virtually, God Almighty has blessed me with an intelligent and knowing heart, and a guidance-seeking and asking tongue.[56]

`Abd al-Rahman Salmi has been reported as saying: By God, in the Quraysh tribe, I did not find anyone as knowledgeable as `Ali in relation to the Holy Qur’an.[57]

Abul-Bukhtari has also been reported as saying: I saw `Ali having the Holy Prophet’s woolen garment on, his turban on the head, his sword fasten to his side, wearing his ring and sitting on the pulpit of Kufah. Exposing his chest, `Ali said: Pose your questions to me before I depart from among you, for there is much knowledge within my chest. Then he emphatically said: This chest is the storage of knowledge and what I say to you is the knowledge I have derived from the mouth of the Holy Prophet (s.a). This knowledge is one which was revealed to the Holy Prophet who fed it to me because of his interest in me, that is to say I enjoyed from that special consciousness without seeing the angel of revelation. If I were given the position of judgment, I would issue religious decrees for the followers of Torah, Gospel, and the Psalms according to their own

وَرَوى البَيهَقيُّ بإسْنادِهِ إلَى رَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ قَالَ: مَنْ أرادَ أنْ يَنْظُرَ إلَى آدَمَ فِي عِلْمِهِ وَإلى نُوحٍ فِي تَقْواهُ وإلى إبْراهيمَ فِي حِلْمِهِ وإلى مُوسى فِي هَيْبَتِهِ وإلى عِيسى فِي عِبادَتِهِ فَلْيَنْظُرْ إلَى عَلِيِّ بنِ أَبِي طالِبٍ.

وَمِنْ كِتابِ المَناقِبِ: عَنِ الحارِثِ الأعْوَرِ صاحِبِ رايةِ عَلِيِّ بنِ أَبِي طالِبٍ قَالَ: بَلَغَنا أنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ كانَ فِي جَمْعٍ مِنْ أصْحابِهِ فَقالَ: أُريكُمْ آدَمَ فِي عِلْمِهِ وَنوحاً فِي فَهْمِهِ وَإبراهيمَ فِي حِكْمَتِهِ. فَلَمْ يَكُنْ بِأسْرَعَ مِنْ أنْ طَلَعَ عَلِيُّ بنُ أَبِي طالِبٍ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ. فَقالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ: يَا رَسولَ اللهِ أقِسْتَ رَجُلاً بِثَلاثَةٍ مِنَ الرُّسُلِ؟! بَخٍ بَخٍ لِهَذا الرَّجُلِ. مَنْ هُوَ يَا رَسولَ اللهِ؟ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: ألا تَعْرِفُهُ يَا أبا بَكْرٍ؟ قَالَ: اللهُ وَرَسولُهُ أعْلَمُ. قَالَ النَّبِيُّ: هُوَ أَبُو الحَسَنِ عَلِيُّ بنُ أَبِي طالِبٍ. فَقالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ: بَخٍ بَخٍ لَكَ يَا أبا الحَسَنِ وَأيْنَ مِثْلُكَ.

وَمِنْهُ: عَنْ عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: وَاللهِ مَا نَزَلَتْ آيَةٌ إلاَّ وَقَدْ عَلِمْتُ فِيمَ أُنْزِلَتْ وَأَينَ أُنْزِلَتْ. وَإنَّ رَبِّي وَهَبَ لي قَلْباً عَقولاً وَلِساناً سَؤولاً.

وَمِنْهُ: عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ السَّلَميِّ قَالَ: وَاللهِ مَا رَأَيْتُ قِرَشِيَّاً أقْرَأَ لِكِتابِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجلَّ مِنْ عَلِيٍّ.

وَمِنْهُ: عَنْ أَبِي البُخْتَريِّ قَالَ: رَأَيْتُ عَلِيَّاً عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ صَعِدَ المِنْبَرَ بِالكُوفَةِ وَعَلَيْهِ مِدْرَعَةٌ لِرَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مُتَقَلِّداً بِسَيْفِ رَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مُتَعَمِّماً بِعِمامَةِ رَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَفي إصْبعِهِ خَاتَمُ رَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فَقَعَدَ عَلَى المِنْبَرِ وَكَشَفَ عَنْ بَطْنِهِ فَقالَ: سَلوني قَبْلَ أنْ تَفْقِدوني، فَإنَّما بَينَ الجَوانِحِ مِنّي عِلْمٌ جَمٌّ. هَذَا سِفْطُ العِلْمِ. هَذَا لُعابُ رَسولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ. هَذَا مَا زَقَّني رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ زَقَّاً مِنْ غَيْرِ وَحْيٍ أوحِيَ إلَيَّ. فَواللهِ لَوْ ثُنِيَتْ ليَ الوِسادَةُ فَجَلَسْتُ عَلَيْها لأَفْتَيْتُ لأهْلِ التَّوْراةِ بِتَوْراتِهِمْ وَلأهْلِ الإنْجيلِ بِإنْجيلِـهِمْ وَلأهْلِ الزَّبــورِ

books in a way that with God’s power, these books would be able to speak to you saying `Ali is speaking truthfully about what we contained and made you aware of. Then, each of those books would blame its followers, saying: Why do you not ponder on and adhere to what you are reading?[58]

On another day, `Ali attended the gathering of people saying: Pose your questions to me before you lose the opportunity when I am not among you. Ask the ways of heavens, for I know them better than those of the earth.[59]

Ahmad ibn Hanbal quoting the Messenger of Allah as saying to Fatimah: My daughter! Are you not pleased[60] for giving you in marriage to the most pioneer among my Ummah, the most knowledgeable of religion and the greatest of them in forbearance?[61]

Ibn `Abbas has quoted the Holy Prophet (s.a) as saying: Actually nine tenth of knowledge has been bestowed upon `Ali and by God `Ali shares the other one tenth of knowledge with all the people.[62]

`A’ishah has been quoted as saying: `Ali was the most knowledgeable in relation to the Holy Prophet’s tradition.[63]

Ibn `Abbas has been quoted as saying: In one of his sermons `Umar said: `Ali is the most knowledgeable of us in judgment and his insight is above us.[64]

Abu’l-Mu’ayyad, in his book of Manaqib, has reported on the authority of Ibn `Abbas that `Umar, once, delivered a speech in which he said, “`Ali is the most versed of all of us in judicature.”


source : http://www.maaref-foundation.com
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