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Thursday 30th of June 2022
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History of Kaaba: The House of Allah

In the province of Hejaz in the western part of Arabia, not far from the Red Sea, there lies the town of Makka. In the centre of this town there is a small square building made of stones, about 60 feet long, 60 feet wide and 60 feet high. Since time immemorial this town and this stone built house has been known to world travellers. This is Baitullah, the House of Allah. Its sanctity and antiquity is older than history itself.

Tradition goes that the Kaaba was ordained by Allah to be built in the shape of the House in Heaven called Baitul Ma’amoor. Allah in his infinite Mercy ordained a similar place on earth and Prophet Adam was the first to build this place. The Bible, in the Chapter of Genesis describes its building when God ordained Abraham to erect a Shrine for worship when Abraham was ordered to go to the Southern desert with his wife Hagera and infant son Ismael. The Old Testament describes this building as the Shrine of God at several places, but the one built at Ma’amoor is very much similar to the one at Makka. There is no doubt that it was referring to the stone built house at Makka.

Qora’an brought this story into the full light of history. In Sura 3 Verse 90 Qora’an says “Allah has spoken the Truth, therefore follow the creed of Ibrahim, a man of pure faith and no idolater”. The first house established for the people was at Makka, a Holy place and a guidance to all beings. Qora’an firmly establishes the fact that Ibrahim was the real founder of the Holy Shrine. 

When Prophet Ibrahim built the Holy Shrine in Makka, his prayers were that this place should remain a centre of worship for all good and pious people; that Allah should keep his family the custodians of the Holy place. Ever since, Ismael the son of Ibrahim who helped his father to build this place and his descendants remained the custodians of the Holy Shrine. History tells us that centuries passed and the guardianship of the Kaaba remained in the family of Ismael until the name of Abde Manaf came into the limelight. He inherited this service and made it much more prominent. His son Hashim took this leadership and extended it to many other towns of Hejaz so much so that many pilgrims flocked annually to this place and enjoyed Hashims’s hospitality. A feast was given in honour of the pilgrims, food and water was served to all guests by the family of Hashim. This prominence created jealousies and his brother Abdushams’ adopted son Ummayya tried to create trouble. There was a dispute in which Umayya failed and left Makka to settle down in the Northern provinces of Suria(Sham) currently known as Syria. After Hashim his brother Muttalib and after him Hashim’s son Shyba who became known as Abdul Muttalib assumed the leadership of the family. He organised feasts and supplies of water to the pilgrims during the annual festival of Pilgrimage to the Holy Shrine.

Prophet Ibrahim built this House for devout worship to one God. But within his lifetime people disobeyed his orders and began to put idols inside the Kaaba. Ibrahim had to clean the House of these idols and of Idle worshippers. He told the people that this was a symbolic house of God. God does not live there for He is everywhere. People did not understand this logic and no sooner had Ibrahim died the people, out of reverence, filled the place with idols again. They thronged to this place annually and worshipped their personal gods, It was over Four Thousand years later that the last of the line of prophet (SA), Muhammad Ibne Abdullah entered Makka triumphantly, went inside the Ka’aba and, with the help of his cousin and son in law Ali Ibne Abi Talib, (AS) destroyed all the idols of Ka’aba with their own hands. At one stage of this destruction of idols, the tallest of the idol Hubbol was brought down after Ali had to stand on the shoulders of the Prophet to carry out God’s orders. The Prophet of Islam was reciting the Verse from the Qur’an,

“Truth hath come and falsehood hath vanished.”

This was done in the 8th year of Hijra, January 630 AD after the bloodless victory at Makka by the Prophet of Islam. 

Historically when Ibrahim was ordered by Allah to build the Shrine for worship over a small he uncovered the original foundations of the Kaaba built by Adam. Ibrahim with the help of his son Ismael erected the new shrine on the same foundations. Originally it contained only four walls without a roof . Centuries later during the timeof Kusayi who was the leader of the Tribe of Quraish in Makka a taller building was completed with a roof and a quadrangle wall around it to give it the shape of a sanctuary and doors all around the sanctuary walls. People entered through these doors to come to the Ka’aba for worship. It is now about 60 feet high, 60 feet wide from east to west and 60 feet from north to south. A door is fixed about 7 feet above ground level facing North East. A Black stone (Hajar al Aswad) was fixed into its eastern corner. In front of the building was Maqame Ibrahim, the arch shape gate known as that of Banu Shayba and the Zamzam Well. Just outside are the Hills called Safa and Merwa and the distance between the hills is about 500 yards. These days both of the hills are enclosed into the sanctuary walls with a roof over it.

The whole building is built of the layers of grey blue stone from the hills surrounding Makka. The four corners roughly face the four points of the compass. At the East is the Black stone (Rukn el Aswad), at the North is el Ruken el Iraqi, at the west al Rukne el Shami and at the south al Rukne el Yamani. The four walls are covered with a curtain (Kiswa). The kiswa is usually of black brocade with the Shahada outlined in the weave of the fabric. About 2/3rd’s of the way up runs a gold embroidered band covered with Qur\'anic text.

In the Eastern corner about 5 feet above ground the Hajar el Aswad (the blackstone) is fixed into the wall. Its real nature is difficult to determine, its visible shape is worn smooth by hand touching and kissing. Its diameter is around 12 inches. Opposite the North west wall but not connected with it, is a semi circular wall of white marble. It is 3 feet high and about 5 feet thick. This semi circular space enjoys an especial consideration and pilgrims wait in queue to find a place to pray there. The graves of Ismael and his mother Hajera are within this semi circular wall. Between the archway and the facade (N.E.) is a little building with a small dome, the Maqame Ibrahim. Inside it is kept a stone bearing the prints of two human feet. Prophet Ibrahim is said to have stood on this stone when building the Ka’aba and marks of his feet are miraculously preserved.

On the outskirts of the building to the North East is the ‘Zamzam Well’ (this is now put under ground). 

History of the building of the Ka’aba.

Qur’an in Sura Baqra Verses 121 to 127 described it clearly that Allah had ordained his servant Ibrahim to build the Shrine there for worship of One God. During Kusayi’s time it was rebuilt and fortified. During the early years of Prophet Muhammad (SA) before he announced his ministry, the Ka’aba was damaged by floods and it was rebuilt again. When the Black stone was to be put in its place the Makkans quarrelled among themselves as to who should have the honour to place it there. They had just decided that the first comer to the quadrangle should be given the task of deciding as to who should have the honour. Muhammad (SA) came in and was assigned this task. He advised them to place the stone in a cloak and ordered the heads of each Tribe each to take an end and bring the cloak nearer the corner on the eastern side. He himself then took out the stone and placed it in its position. It has been fixed there ever since. 

After the martyrdom of the family of the Prophet at Kerbala in 61 Hijri (681 AD), the Ummayad Caliph azid Ibne Moawiya did not stop there in the pursuit of his destruction. He sent a large contingent under the command of Haseen Ibne Namir to Madina which destroyed the Mosque of the Prophet. They did not stop there but proceeded to Makka and demolished the four walls of the Ka’aba and killed thousands of muslims who protested. Yazid died and Ibne Namir returned to Damascus, Ka’aba was rebuilt by Abdullah Ibne Zubayr and his associates. Umawi forces came back to Makka and killed Abdullah Ibne Zubayr, hung his body on the gates of the Ka’aba for three months for all to see the Umawi power. But eventually this arrogance of power brought its own consequences and Mukhtar became the ruler in Iraq. Under his guidance the Ka’aba was refurbished and pilgrims began to arrive in safety to perform Hajj.

The Ka’aba successfully withstood the Karamatian invasion of 317/929, only the Blackstone was carried away which was returned some twenty years later. In the year 1981 the Wahabis brought tanks inside the Ka’aba to crush the kahtani revolution against the Saudi regime and almost demolished the South Eastern Wall. This was later restored with the help of the Makkan people.

Every man living in Makka in the 6th and 7th century must out of necessity have had some relationship with the Ka’aba. On the Muhammad (SA), the Prophet of Islam, the Qur’an is silent during the Makkans period in this respect. All that is known is that the muslim community of the period turned towards Jerusalem in prayers. Subsequently about a year and a half after the Hijra the Muslims were ordered during prayers which were lead by the Prophet of Islam himself to turn towards Makka. The particular mosque in Madina where this happened is called Masjide Qiblatain, meaning the mosque with two Qiblas.The Qur’an tells the muslims, “ turn then thy face towards the sacred mosque and wherever ye be turn your faces towards that part ”Qur’an II,139/144. 

At this same period the Qur’an began to lay stress on the religion of Ibrahim, presenting Islam as a return to the purity of the religion of Ibrahim which, obscured by Judaism and Christianity, shone forth in its original brightness in the Qur’an. The pilgrimage’s to the Ka’aba and ritual progressions around the building were continued, but were now for the glorification of One God. The Abrahimic vision of the Ka’aba created a means of discerning an orthodox origin buried in the midst of pagan malpractices to which the first muslims pointed the way.

Every year after the Hajj ceremony the place is closed for one month and on the Day of Ashura the Ka’aba is washed from inside by the Water from the well of Zamzam and a new Kiswa is brought to cover the Ka’aba for the next year.

This is the story of the Ka’aba and the persons who protected it and remained its custodians and protectors from the satanic and evil forces throughout history. Muhammad (SA) and the people of his household (Ahlulbayt) were the protectors of the Ka’aba, and currently the 12th Imam from the direct descent of the Prophet of Islam is the real protector, its custodian and guardian and shall remain as such while in concealment.

 

Belief in Allah

It is worth emphasizing that among human thinkers there exists no difference of opinion on the point that this universe has a self-sustaining First Cause. 

At the most, materialists call it matter, while the religious philosophers call it Allah. It is essential to acknowledge the existence of the First Cause, for a sequence of causes and effects cannot go on indefinitely and we must reach a point where we should come to a cause which is not the effect of any other cause, i.e. the ultimate cause or the Unmoved Mover , which is self-existing and which has always been and shall always be.

It is this Self-Sustaining First Cause which not only makes our intellectual life possible but also quite meaningful. Suppose for a moment that there is no such First Cause. To where does this lead us? Surely this cause and effect pursuit lands us in what is known in Philosophy as a continuum ad infinitum. 

This brings our investigation to a blind alley. It marks the beginning of intellectual wilderness, a wild goose chase. You go on piling cause upon cause and effect upon effect only to find still another cause and effect staring you in the face.

 Of what earthly use is it to put zero after zero when the result is zero or to place nil after nil when the result is nil ? Such is the deception of a certain mental activity and such is its misguidance.

It will thus be seen that the only way to get out of this mire is the acknowledgement of the Self- Sustaining First Cause.

Belief in the existence of an Eternal and First Cause is the common ground between the believers in God and the materialists. The only controversial point is whether the First Cause has knowledge and intellect or not. That is the real point of difference.

The materialists deny that the First Cause has any intellect. They hold that the first cause is matter, which lacks any intellect or knowledge, whereas the believers in God maintain that the First Source of the universe has limitless knowledge, wisdom and rationality.

How to Recognize God

The Universe

Now let us cast an eye on the various phenomena of the universe to find out which one supports which of these two theories and to see whether the things existing in the universe indicate that the First Cause has intellect.

It will be better to begin with our own body. Does not the construction of the human eye and the way the lenses, retina and various layers of it have been fixed, testify that its maker is fully conversant with the physical laws concerning the reflection of light and the working of lenses and mirrors ?

Does not the composition of human blood of plasma and various types of corpuscles with such a fixed proportion that the slightest change in it disturbs the whole biological system, clearly show that the maker of the blood knew the chemical composition and properties of all the ingredients of blood fully well?

Does not the construction of the living human, animal and plant cells in such a complex and mysterious and at the same time elegant and accurate way manifest that the job has been performed by a Being who had full knowledge of all the laws connected with the human, animal and plant physiology ?

Does not the special construction of the solar system and the particular proportion between the size, distance and speed of each planet of this system prove that the maker of this machine is fully aware of all the details of the law of gravitation and the effects of the rotatory motion in producing centrifugal forces?

In short, the special construction of all that exists n the universe from the smallest particles or sub atoms to the biggest galaxies and the accurate and wonderfully arranged systems of their working bear witness to the fact that the First source has full knowledge of all the connected laws and systems.

In principle all human sciences are nothing more than a partial knowledge of a minute part of the secrets and laws of the universe.

How can it ever be that we, with such a partial knowledge, should become scholars and scientists but the First Source who brought the whole universe into existence should have no knowledge and intellect ? transplantation of a human heart by Dr. Bernard r required millions of scientists for thousands of years to put in their efforts for the development of medicine and surgery. Is it conceivable that the very maker of the heart should have no knowledge?

In short, the interpretation of creation of all the well-calculated and well-conceived systems, as chance events and product of unplanned and aimless causes is as illogical as to say that the transplantation of heart performed by Dr. Bernard and his team was not the result of any knowledge and study, and it was just by chance that grafting took place.

Such an interpretation is totally unacceptable. But to say that the entire universe has come into existence just by chance is far more illogical. Hence the materialistic interpretation of the genesis of the universe and all that exists in it, is totally unscientific.

Thus, every book of our natural sciences like physics, chemistry , physiology, anatomy, medicine, surgery etc. may be used as book of natural theology, for all these books discuss the secrets and laws of the marvelous systems of creation, whose logical and correct interpretation is not possible without acknowledging the existence of God.

This very line of argument has been mostly followed y the Holy Quran while adducing arguments for the unity of Allah.

As Kepler, the famous scientist and founder of modern Astronomy has said, “The more we know about the creation and grandeur of heavenly bodies, the deeper should be our faith.\"

Thus there exists a close relationship between the progress of sciences and the firmness of faith in God. The more the scientific knowledge expands, the firmer will the faith grow in the One Source of knowledge and power .

Mr. McCombs, a biologist, who has been the head of the Academy of Sciences, Florida, says that every new discovery in the world of science increases the firmness of our faith hundreds of times, dispels the hidden doubts which more or less lurk inside our hearts, and replaces them with the nobler ideas of the acknowledgement of God and His unity.

Motion, Evolution and Life

Science of Physics tells us that if the lifeless matter is static, it tends to remain static unless it is moved by some external force, and if it is in motion it continues to move unless it is stopped by some external factor.

Yet another scientific law tells us that the matter forming the universe tends to disintegrate and assume simpler form with the passage of time. Mechanized matter changes into simpler matter; atoms if they remain as they are, automatically disintegrate; bright stars tend to lose their brightness.

Thus within the lifeless matter there exists no factor which may push it forward to evolution. On the other hand, it tends to disintegrate automatically.

In such circumstances, it must be admitted that evolution and life have come from outside, for, within the matter, there exists no such tendency.

A philosopher says that you cannot think of that attraction to life which pervades from simple ameoba to human beings (like Einstein, Edison and Anatole France) without seeing the world in a divine garb. In other words it is not possible to interpret attraction to life and inclination to evolution except through a belief in God.

Transience of the Universe

Science tells us that in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics, all the energy available in the world is proceeding towards uniformity and neutrality, and a day will come when it, having become uniform, will be neutralized. And then a state of indifference will prevail in the whole world. This is just like the case of interconnected vessels of the liquid, we observe motion, but this state does not continue for ever. Sooner or later all the levels become uniform and everything becomes motionless and quiet.

According to this law, the universe must have a history .It cannot be eternal. Had it always existed, it would have become uniform and neutral long, long ago.

On this ground, we must admit that this material world has not always existed. It is not eternal and must have a history.

Now the big question is what is the origin of the universe. What event disturbed the first day tranquility and became the source of the creation of all the phenomena?

The first explosion or the Big Bang? Then what was the source of the explosion of the uniform atoms of primary matter? How is it possible that in a state of complete tranquility and indifference such an explosion should occur automatically?

Here it must be admitted that some outside factor was the source of the disturbance of the first indifference, emergence of a wave in the uniform of lifeless matter and the subsequent creation of the diverse phenomena of the world. We call this supernatural factor, Allah.

The above mentioned three ways of proving the existence of Allah are the subject of detailed books compiled by philosophers of divinity. We have given only a brief summary .

The Quran and Acknowledgement of Allah

It is interesting that in our sacred book, the Holy Quran, a large number of whose verses are meant to strengthen the belief in Allah, reliance has invariably been put on scientific arguments.

The Holy Quran in most of its verses concerning the unity of Allah, refers to the first method, i.e. the study of the system of the universe. It calls upon all to study this marvelous system. Sometimes it refers to the secrets of the creation of the heavens. It says: “In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alteration of night and day, there are many signs for the people of good sense.\"

Sometimes it refers to other methods. It cites the Champion of Unity, Prophet Abraham (P) as saying : “My Lord is He who causes life and who causes death.”

Here reference has been made to life and death for they definitely indicate the existence of the Creator. This is the second way of proving the existence of Allah as mentioned earlier. In the Holy Quran there are hundreds of verses on the subject of divine unity and acknowledgement of Allah, in which attention has been drawn to the marvels of creation and grandeur of the universe. Study of these verses can be the subject of an independent book, in which wonders of science and secrets of the Holy Quran can be discussed side by side.

Atheism Does Not Exist

In view of the scientific arguments mentioned above to prove the existence of Allah, it may be asked why most of the scientists and founders of physical sciences still adhere to atheism. The answer to this question is simple. There is hardly any scientist who does not explicitly or implicitly profess the existence of the First Cause or the Source of Knowledge and Power. It does not make any difference if he does use the word, God or Allah. In the words of a well-known philosopher there exists no atheism. Every body thinks of Him and acknowledges Him in his own way.

If any body, in the course of discussion on heart, states that Nature has put up a septum between the right and left chambers of the heart so that the pure and the impure blood may not be mixed, does it not mean that he concedes that Nature has aim, intention, program and intellect ? In this case is it possible to say that by Nature he means factors lacking consciousness ? Obviously he means Allah though he uses the word, Nature.

Such expressions which are an evidence of faith in the existence of a First Cause, are found in the discourses of most scientists. That shows that they all hold that Nature has aim, will, intention and program. Evidently by the word . ‘Nature’ they do not mean factors having no consciousness or will. Hence, obviously they use this word as a name for Allah.

Attributes of Allah

It is not surprising that it is easy to prove the existence of Allah, but it is difficult fully to understand His real Being and His attributes. First of all we must know that Allah is Ever-existing and Limitless. He is limitless in respect of knowledge, power, time and space, whereas our knowledge and power, howsoever vast they may be, are still limited and have an end. As such, how can a limited being completely grasp the very essence of an Unlimited Being ? It is not possible for a chick which has grown inside the shell of an egg to know what happens inside the limitless space of the far-off galaxies.

But that does not mean that we cannot understand the attributes of Allah to the extent of our powers of thinking, knowing and understanding.

From the study of the phenomena of the universe we can find out that He is :

All-Knowing and All-wise: This is evidenced by the extra-ordinarily marvelous diversity of life and all that exists on the earth and in the heavens.

Ever-living : Life in the real sense is nothing but a combination of knowledge and power. Allah is All-knowing and All-powerful. Hence He is All-living.

For the same reason, He has will and comprehension also. He sees everything and hears every sound and every voice. He is All-pervading and All-aware. He is Eternal and Ever-existing. He has always existed and shall always exist.

These are some of His attributes, known as Positive Attributes. for they have positive aspects. There are Negative Attributes also, which have a negative aspect.

Being Limitless and Perfect in every sense, He is free from ignorance, inability, need and defect.

He can have no associate and none can be like Him. It is not possible to imagine the existence of two beings, limitless in every respect, for each of them will be lacking in the essence of the other

From this it is also evident that Allah has no physical body, for all bodies sooner or later disintegrate. As such, an Ever existing Being cannot have a body, which is liable to disintegration, decomposition and every sort of change.

Divine Unity

Divine unity is the Infrastructure of all religious Teachings. The question of divine unity has supreme importance in Islam. In one way or the other it forms a part of all Islamic tenets and teachings. Islam rejects every kind of polytheism, dualism and trinity. According to it, Allah is one. He has no components and none is like Him. This stage is known as Unity of Being.

Unity of Attributes

A number of qualities like knowledge, power, eternity and ever-existence are attributed to Allah. They all are the very essence of His Being and are in no way separate from Him. He is a Limitless Being and a limitless being can be nothing but a Reality. All His attributes turn to one attribute, viz. limitlessness. This stage is called Unity of Attributes.

Unity of Worship

Further, according to the teachings of Islam, only Allah is Adorable. Islam does not allow in any form the worship of anyone or any thing else. Neither the sun or the stars nor any human being is adorable, because all things have been created by Him and He has sovereign control over all of them. Hence only He is adorable. This stage is called Unity of Worship.

Unity of Action

A careful study of all that happens in the world will show that Allah is the Creator and the real source of all power. If we accomplish any job, it is He who provides the necessary power. In view of this, it may be said that all our actions are accomplished with His help. No body has power independent of His power. Absolute and independent power pertains only to him. This is called Unity of Actions.

Anyhow, this should not be misconstrued to mean that we have no free will or responsibility. He himself has bestowed freedom on us. He wants us freely to choose our way to better life in this world and hereafter. He has done us a favor and put at our disposal all the necessary means to reach this goal.

Our freedom is a gift from Him and because we have free will we are held responsible for our actions.

Man and Freedom of Will

Let us discuss the subject of free will a little further .

We can dearly see that we are not predestined in our actions. We have liberty of action and freedom of will. A simple proof of human volition is that we blame the offenders for their offences. We lodge complaints with the courts against transgressors and ask for their trial and punishment. Even those who claim to believe in predestination take the action in their practical life. If man has no free will and every- thing is appointed and foreordained by Allah or if man is really helpless in the face of his physical or spiritual up-bringing and environment, then prosecution trial, courts and punishment have no meaning. Neither a good and dutiful worker deserves any appreciation nor an evil-doer is liable to any prosecution and punishment, because both of them are helpless in their action. Prosecution of a person who has no choice of action is far from justice. The way we and all reasonable persons behave in our daily life testifies that our conscience recognizes that man possesses freedom of will. Hence belief in predestination has no basis.

Allah has granted us freedom, but it is our duty not to misuse it and to direct all our energies to the achievement of our own happiness as well as that of society.

We are neither allowed to follow any false ideas or doctrines nor to take any incorrect action in the name of freedom of thought or freedom of action, for that will amount to chaos and anarchy, and not freedom.

 

Allah Almighty is Absolute Reality

Man is a realistic being. A newborn human child from the very first moments of its life, while looking for its mother\'s breast, seeks it as a reality. Gradually the body and the mind of the infant develop to the extent that it can distinguish between itself and other things. Though the newborn child\'s contact with other things is established through a series of its thoughts, it knows that the reality of the things is distinct from that of the thoughts which it entertains and uses as a medium only.

Integral Characteristics of the World

The realities which man can perceive through his senses and which we call the world, have the following integral characteristics:

(i) Limitation

Everything perceptible, from the smallest particle to the biggest star has spatial and temporal limitations. Nothing can exist outside a particular space and a particular period of time.

Certain things occupy a bigger space and last longer while some others occupy a smaller space and last comparatively for a shorter time. But in the final analysis they are all limited to a particular portion of place and a particular period of time.

(ii) Change

Everything is subject to a change and is indurable. Nothing perceptible in the world is in a standstill state. It is either growing or decaying. A material and perceptible being throughout the period of its existence passes through a constant course of change as a part of its reality. It either gives something or takes something or gives as well as takes. In other words, it either takes something out of the reality of other things and adds it to its own reality or gives something out of its reality or performs both the actions. In any case, there is nothing that remains static. This characteristic also is common to all things existing in this world.

(iii) Attachment

Another characteristic of the perceptible things is their attachment. We find that they all are conditional. In other words the existence of each one of them is attached to and , conditional on the existence of one or more other things. None of them can exist if those other things do not exist. If we look deeply into the reality of the material and perceptible things, we will find that many \'ifs\' are attached to their existence. We do not find a single perceptible thing which may be existing unconditionally and independently. The existence of everything is conditional on the existence of something else, and the existence of that something else in its turn is also conditional on the existence of something else, and so on.

(iv) Dependence

The existence of all our perceptible things depends on the fulfillment of the numerous conditions attached to it. The existence of each of these conditions again depends on the fulfillment of a series of some other conditions. There is no perceptible thing which may exist independently, i.e. in the absence of the conditions on which its existence depends. Thus dependence pervades all existing things.

(v) Relativeness

All perceptible things are relative as regards to their existence a well as to their qualities. When we attribute to them greatness, power, beauty, antiquity and even existence, we say so in comparison to other things. When we say, for example, that the sun is very large, we mean that it is larger than the earth and other planets of our solar system. Otherwise this very sun is smaller than many other stars. Similarly when we say that such and such ship or such and such animal is powerful, we compare it with man or something weaker than man. Even the existence of a thing is comparative. Whenever we speak of any existence, perfection, wisdom, beauty, power or grandeur, we take into consideration a lower degree of that quality. We can always visualize a higher degree of it also and then a further higher degree. Each quality as compared to its higher degree is changed into its opposite. Existence becomes non-existence, perfection is changed into defectiveness. Similarly wisdom, beauty, greatness and grandeur are changed respectively into ignorance, ugliness and despicability.

The thinking power of man, the scope of which, contrary to that of the senses, is not confined to the exterior features, but also penetrates what is behind the screen of existence, tells us that existence is in no way confined to these perceptible things which are limited, changing, relative and dependent.

The scenery of existence which we observe appears on the whole to be self-existing and self-dependent. Hence there must be an everlasting, unconditional and ever-present absolute and infinite truth behind it on which everything must depend. Otherwise this scenery of existence could not stand so firmly. In other words nothing would have existed at all. The Holy Qur\'an describes Allah as Self-existing and Self-dependent, and thus reminds us that all existing things, being conditional and relative, are in need of a Self-existing truth to support and sustain them. Allah is Self-dependent because everything else depends on Him. He is Perfect, for everything else is hollow from within and needs a Truth which may fill it with existence.

The Holy Qur\'an describes the perceptible things as \'signs\'. In other words everything in its turn is a sign of an Infinite Being and His knowledge, power and will. From the viewpoint of the Holy Qur\'an the world is like a book composed by a wise and sagacious being, every line and every word of which is a sign of the wisdom and sagacity of its author. From the point of view of the Holy Qur\'an, the more a man comes to know the reality of the things, the more he gets acquainted with Divine wisdom, power and blessings. From one angle every natural science is a branch of cosmology. From another angle and from a deeper way of looking at things, it is a branch of the knowledge (recognition) of Allah.

 

Discussion on Types of Knowing All

Two Types of Knowing Allah

Two types of knowing Allah can be imagined: The intuitive knowing which is fulfilled without the intermediation of mental concepts. The other is the general knowing which is fulfilled by means of the rational concepts, and does not directly belong to Allah.

The knowledge, which is achieved by way of rational proofs, is a general and acquired knowledge attained to through mental concepts. Yet, if a visionary and intuitive knowledge takes place, it will be known without the intermediation of mental concepts.

Probably, the prevision mentioned in certain a yahs and narratives is this very visionary knowledge. It is also possible that Allah cannot be recognized except through His own self. [\"Usulul-Kafi\", vol. 1, the Book of \"He (the Almighty) cannot be recognized except through His own self:\"] refers to the same knowledge. The contexts of some other narratives can also be regarded likewise.[Such as the narrative quoted from the Imam al-Baqir (A.S.) who said: \"Whatever you recognize through your own imagination with its tiniest concepts is but a creature made like yourself and it returns to you.\"

\"Al-Mahajjatul-Bayda\", vol.l, p.219, printed by As-Sadiq press.

And a narrative quoted from the Imam As-Sadiq (A.S.) that: \"\"Whoever claimed that he worshipped [Allah] on the basis of attribute, not of understanding, he would be referring to an absent ...Recognizing the present thing itself comes before its attribute, and recognizing the attribute of the absent comes before the very thing.\" (Tuhaful `Uqul\") in his speech about describing love for Ahlul-Bayt\" (A.S.)].

Admitting this point would protect our minds against a prejudgement on the ayahs concerning recognizing Allah, by taking them as general and as mental knowing of Him. They are to be better scrutinized lest some of them might refer to the presence of Allah through heart intuition, which may happen consciously or half-consciously. It is of the intuitive kind of knowledge.

Naturally, the intuitive knowledge can neither be learnt nor taught. Learning and teaching are practiced by means of words and concepts which insert certain meanings into the minds of the listeners and thinkers. The intuitive knowledge is not an intellectual meaning and can neither be conveyed nor received. Even the Qur\'anic declarations cannot, by themselves, grant us intuitive and visionary knowledge, but they can us to get to intuitively know Allah, the Exalted, or to bring our unconscious, or half-conscious guide us along the road which helps, knowledge up to the level of conscious knowledge.

So, we have to answer this question: does the Qur\'an aim at giving man a general idea about Allah, the Exalted, His Names and His Attributes, like that which is taught by the philosophers and theologians, or does it have another loftier aim - i.e., does it acquaint us with Allah and guide us to the intuitive and visionary knowledge?

2. The names and the words which refer to Allah in the diverse languages are of two kinds: some are \"particular names\", or \"proper names\", and some are used as names or general attributes\". Sometimes a word is used in two forms: as a \"proper name\", or as a \"general name\", since there seems to be a kind of verbal communion between them, such as the word \"GOD\".[If used with capital \"G\", it is a proper name, and if used with a small \"g\", it is a general name.] 

In the Arabic language, the Glorified Name, \"Allah\", is used as a proper name or a personal pronoun, and \"Ar-Rahman\" [The Beneficent], is His Exclusive Attribute.

As to his other Names and Attributes they have no such exclusiveness, and, as such, they can be grouped and used for other than Allah, such as \"rabb, pl. arbab\" [master(s), owners)]\", ilah, pl. alihah\" [god(s)], khaliq, pl. khaliqun\" [creator(s)] and \"rahim, pl. ruhama and rahimun\" [merciful].

In the Qur\'an we find such qualities as \"ra\'uf\" [kind] and \"rahim\", attributed to the Prophet (S.A.): \"(he is) kind and merciful to the believers\". [Surat Bar\'a\'ah/128.] 

3. The proper name might have been assigned to a particular being from the beginning , with no previous common name, though, before using it as a proper name, it might have been used as a general name or attribute, such as Muhammad and \'Ali, which had not formerly been used attributively.

Such names, in their new position as proper names belong to the first group.

Consequently, the Glorious Word \"Allah\", whether aplastic or derived, when used as a proper name, it exclusively refers to the Divine Sacred Being. But, as His Sacred Being is not visible, He is introduced by way of an exclusive epithet that cannot be used to describe other than Allah, such as: \"The Being All-Inclusive of all attributes of perfection”, yet, it does not mean that the word \"Allah\" is intended to cover the total of these concepts. So, any research about the matter and form of this word would not help us to know any more of the meaning of the word as a personal knowledge.

4. Although the Persian word for Allah, \"Khuda\", is said to be the abbreviation of \"Khud-da\", which is equivalent to \"the One whose existence is necessay\' or \"the Necessary Being\" there are some other similar ones, like \"Khudawand\" and \"KadKhuda\", one may declare that it means \"The Owner\" or \"The Proprietor\", while its common meaning is like \"The Creator\" or \"The Originator\".

The most common word used in the Qur\'an to denote God is \"Ilah\" and \"Rabb\", the first of which is used even in the slogan of monotheism: \"La ilaha illallah\" (there is no god but Allah). It is, then, suitable to offer an explanation regarding these two words: \"llah, though on the measure of \"fi\'al\", has the meaning of \";af\'al\", like \"Kitab\" which means \"maktab\". So, linguistically it means \"ma\'bad\" [The Woshippedl. One can also add that \"llah\", like many other derivatives, denotes status and meritoriousness. Thus, He can be said to be \"worthy of worshipping\". So, in the slogan \"la ilaha illallah\", there would be no need to think of a relevant attribute.

Here, another question may be asked: If \"Ilah\" means \"the One worthy of worshipping\", why then it is used in the Qur\'an to denote the false \'deities such as \"the Samiri\'s calf\", which is referred to as \"your 11ab\", or Pharaoh\'s deities which are referred to as \"your Ilahs\"? The answer is that such uses are either according to the beliefs of the addressees, or uttered by the disbelievers - the case in which it means \"the thing which, according to the listener\'s, or the speaker\'s, belief, is worthy of worshipping\". Thus, even in such instances the intended meaning of the word is also \"worthiness\", though from the point of view of the addressee or the addresser.

As to \"rabb\", which means \"educator \", \"nourisher\" or \"breeder\", originally meant \"the owner\", as is gathered from the Arabic phrase: \"rabbul-ibil\" [the owner of the camels], or \"rabbud-dar\" [the owner of the house] although it can be related, through \"the grand derivation\", to the root \"to bring up\", yet it does not exactly mean that. Therefore, translating it into \"rearer\" is not quite suitable, and using it for Allah, the Exalted is because He is \"the Owner\" of His creatures, and needs no genetic nor legal permission from anybody to deal with them and manage their affairs.

So, believing in one\'s \"ownership\" means believing in one\'s independent and needless of permission from anybody to do whatever one likes to what one owns. Believing in the oneness of the \"Owner means believing that it is only Allah who can, independently and without any permission, dispose of all His creatures (the whole world) and manage their affairs.

Looking into the meanings of \"ilah and \"rabb, we realize that the former is a carollary to the latter, as worship and servitude are practiced by the one who believes that the worshipped must have an independent mastery, domination and absolute ownership over the servant, inasmuch as to benefit or harm him.

ABOUT ALLAH THE GLORIOUS WORD

Allah\" ( الله = the divine name) was originally al-Ilah (الاله ) ; the \"I\" ( اِ ) ; in the middle was omitted because of frequent use. al-Ilah is derived from alaha ( اله = he worshipped) or from aliha or waliha (الهor وله= he was bewildered). It is on paradigm of al-fi’al (الفعال)in meaning of al-maf’ul (المفعول = object-noun). For example, al-Kitab (الكتاب) means al-Maktub ( المكتوب) = the written); likewise al-Ilah means al-Ma’luh (المألوه) that is, the One who is worshipped, or the One about whom minds are bewildered.Quite clearly, it has become the proper name of God. It was commonly used in this meaning in Arabic long before the Qur\'an was revealed. The fact that even pre-Islamic Arabs used this name for God, may be inferred from the following verses:And if you should ask them who created them, they would certainly say: \"Allah\" …. (43:87).. . . and they say: \"This for Allah \" - so they assert - \"and this is for our associates\". (6:136).Other divine names may be used as adjectives for this name; for example, \"the Beneficent and the Merciful Allah\"; also, this name is used as subject of the verbs derived from other divine names; for example, \"Allah knew\", \"Allah had mercy\", \"Allah gave sustenance\" etc. But the word, \"Allah\", is never used as adjective to any other name, nor is the verb derived from it used to describe other names. It is a clear proof that it is the proper name of God.

The divine existence, in as much as Allah is the God of everything, presupposes that He should have all the attributes of perfection; and, as a result, this name points to all perfect attributes. That is why it is said that the name, \"Allah\", means \"the Person Who is the Essential Being, and who encompasses all the attributes of perfection\". But the fact is that it is the proper name of God and no other meaning (except that related to worship or bewilderment) has been taken into consideration here.

Ninty Nine Names Of Allah

1. Allah:

He who has the Godhood which is the power to create the entities. 

2. Ar-Rahman:

The One who has plenty of mercy for the believers and the blasphemers in this world and especially for the believers in the hereafter. 

3. Ar-Rahim:

The One who has plenty of mercy for the believers.

4. Al-Malik:

He, The Exalted, His Existence is obvious by proofs and He is clear from the delusions of attributes of bodies. The One with the complete Dominion, the One Whose Dominion is clear from imperfection. 

5. Al-Quddus:

The One who is pure from any imperfection and clear from children and adversaries. 

6. As-Salam:

The One who is free from every imperfection. 

7. Al-Mu\'min:

The One who witnessed for Himself that no one is God but Him. And He witnessed for His believers that they are truthful in their belief that no one is God but Him. 

8. Al-Muhaymin:

The One who witnesses the saying and deeds of His creatures. 

9. Al-Aziz:

The Defeater who is not defeated. 

10. Al-Jabbar:

The One that nothing happens in His Dominion except that which He willed. 

11. Al-Mutakabbir: 

The One who is clear from the attributes of the creatures and from resembling them. 

12. Al-Khaliq:

The One who brings everything from non-existence to existence. 

13. Al-Bari\':

The Creator who has the Power to turn the entities. 

14. Al-Musawwir:

The One who forms His creatures in different pictures. 

15. Al-Ghaffar:

The One who forgives the sins of His slaves time and time again. 

16. Al-Qahhar:

The Subduer who has the perfect Power and is not unable over anything. 

17. Al-Wahhab:

The One who is Generous in giving plenty without any return. He is everything that benefits whether Halal or Haram. 

19. Al-Fattah:

The One who opens for His slaves the closed worldy and religious matters. 

20. Al-\'Alim:

The Knowledgeable; The One nothing is absent from His knowledge.

21. Al-Qabid and 22. Al-Basit:

The One who constricts the sustenance by His wisdomand expands and widens it with His Generosity and Mercy. 

23. Al-Khafid and 24. Ar-Rafi\':

The One who lowers whoever He willed by His Destruction and raises whoever He willed by His Endowment. 

25. Al-Mu\'iz and 26. Al-Muthil:

He gives esteem to whoever He willed, hence there is no one to degrade Him; And He degrades whoever He willed, hence there is no one to give Him esteem. 

27. As-Sami\':

The One who Hears all things that are heard by His Eternal Hearing without an ear, instrument or organ. 

28. Al-Basir:

The One who Sees all things that are seen by His Eternal Seeing without a pupil or any other instrument. 

29. Al-Hakam:

He is the Ruler and His judgment is His Word. 

30. Al-Adl:

The One who is entitled to do what He does. 

31. Al-Latif:

The One who is kind to His slaves and endows upon them. 

32. Al-Khabir:

The One who knows the truth of things.

33. Al-Halim:

The One who delays the punishment for those who deserve it and then He might forgive them. 

34. Al-\'Azim:

The One deserving the attributes of Exaltment, Glory, Extolement,and Purity from all imperfection. 

35. Al-Ghafur:

The One who forgives a lot. 

36. Ash-Shakur:

The One who gives a lot of reward for a little obedience. 

37. Al-Aliyy:

The One who is clear from the attributes of the creatures. 

38. Al-Kabir:

The One who is greater than everything in status. 

39. Al-Hafiz:

The One who protects whatever and whoever He willed to protect. 

40. Al-Muqit:

The One who has the Power. 

41. Al-Hasib:

The One who gives the satisfaction. 

42. Aj-Jalil:

The One who is attributed with greatness of Power and Glory of status. 

43. Al-Karim:

The One who is clear from abjectness. 

44. Ar-Raqib:

The One that nothing is absent from Him. Hence it\'s meaning is related to the attribute of Knowledge. 

45. Al-Mujib:

The One who answers the one in need if he asks Him and rescues the yearner if he calls upon Him. 

46. Al-Wasi:

The Knowledgeable. 

47. Al-Hakim:

The One who is correct in His doings. 

48. Al-Wadud:

The One who loves His believing slaves and His believing slaves love Him. His love to His slaves is His Will to be merciful to them and praise them: Hence it\'s meaning is related to the attributes of the Will and Kalam (His attribute with which He orders and forbids and spoke to Muhammad and Musa -peace be upon them- . It is not a sound nor a language nor a letter.). 

49. Al-Majid:

The One who is with perfect Power, High Status, Compassion, Generosity and Kindness. 

50. Al-Ba\'ith:

The One who resurrects His slaves after death for reward and/or punishment. 

51. Ash-Shahid:

The One who nothing is absent from Him. 

52. Al-Haqq:

The One who truly exists. 

53. Al-Wakil:

The One who gives the satisfaction and is relied upon. 

55. Al-Matin:

The One with extreme Power which is un-interrupted and He does not get tired. 

56. Al-Waliyy:

The Supporter. 

57. Al-Hamid:

The praised One who deserves to be praised. 

58. Al-Muhsi:

The One who the count of things are known to him. 

59. Al-Mubdi\':

The One who started the human being. That is, He created him.

60. Al-Mu\'id:

The One who brings back the creatures after death. 

61. Al-Muhyi:

The One who took out a living human from semen that does not have a soul. He gives life by giving the souls back to the worn out bodies on the resurrection day and He makes the hearts alive by the light of knowledge. 

62. Al-Mumit:

The One who renders the living dead. 

63. Al-Hayy:

The One attributed with a life that is unlike our life and is not that of a combination of soul, flesh or blood. 

64. Al-Qayyum:

The One who remains and does not end. 

65. Al-Wajid:

The Rich who is never poor. Al-Wajd is Richness. 

66. Al-Majid:

The One who is Majid. 

67. Al-Wahid:

The One without a partner. 

68. As-Samad:

The Master who is relied upon in matters and reverted to in ones needs. 

69. Al-Qadir:

The One attributed with Power. 

70. Al-Muqtadir:

The One with the perfect Power that nothing is withheld rom Him. 

71. Al-Muqaddim and 72. Al-Mu\'akhkhir:

The One who puts things in their right places. He makes ahead what He wills and delays what He wills. 

73. Al-\'Awwal:

The One whose Existence is without a beginning. 

74. Al-\'Akhir:

The One whose Existence is without an end. 

75. Az-Zahir:

The One that nothing is above Him and nothing is underneath Him, hence He exists without a place. 

76. Al-Batin:

He, The Exalted, His Existence is obvious by proofs and He is clear from the delusions of attributes of bodies. 

77. Al-Wali:

The One who owns things and manages them. 

78. Al-Muta\'ali:

The One who is clear from the attributes of the creation. 

79. Al-Barr:

The One who is kind to His creatures, who covered them with His sustenance and specified whoever He willed among them by His support, protection, and special mercy. 

80. At-Tawwab:

The One who grants repentance to whoever He willed among His creatures and accepts his repentance. 

81. Al-Muntaqim:

The One who victoriously prevails over His enemies and punishes them for their sins. It may mean the One who destroys them.

82. Al-Afuww:

The One with wide forgiveness. 

83. Ar-Ra\'uf:

The One with extreme Mercy. The Mercy of Allah is His will to endow upon whoever He willed among His creatures. 

84. Malik Al-Mulk:

The One who controls the Dominion and gives dominion to whoever He willed. 

85. Thul-Jalal wal-Ikram:

The One who deserves to be Exalted and not denied. 

86. Al-Muqsit:

The One who is Just in His judgment. 

87. Aj-Jami:

The One who gathers the creatures on a day that there is no doubt about, that is the Day of Judgment. 

88. Al-Ghaniyy:

The One who does not need the creation. 

89. Al-Mughni:

The One who satisfies the necessities of the creatures. 

90. Al-Mani:

The Supporter who protects and gives victory to His pious believers. Al-Mu\'tiy The Withholder 

91. Ad-Darr: and 92. An-Nafi:

The One who makes harm reach to whoever He willed and benefit to whoever He willed. 

93. An-Nur:

The One who guides.

94. Al-Hadi:

The One whom with His Guidance His belivers were guided, and with His Guidance the living beings have been guided to what is beneficial for them and protected from what is harmful to them. 

95. Al-Badi:

The One who created the creation and formed it without any preceding example. 

96. Al-Baqi:

The One that the state of non-existence is impossible for Him.

97. Al-Warith:

The One whose Existence remains. 

98. Ar-Rashid:

The One who guides. 

99. As-Sabur:

The One who does not quickly punish the sinners. \"...Naught is as His likeness; and He is the Hearer, the Seer...\" Qur\'an [42:11] (Arabic transliteration: Huwa Allathi Laysa Ka Mithlihi Shay\'un Wa Huwa As-Sami\' Al-Basir)


source : http://www.ahl-ul-bayt.org
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safia
Its TRUE that hazrat ali razziallahanhu.born in kabba?rukney yammani opened for his mother to be relieved his son there?
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2013-01-31 03:00:50