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Thursday 27th of January 2022
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The Birthday Anniversary of Imam Ali-un-Naqi al-Hadi (A.S.)

Name: ‘Ali bin Muhammad.
Agnomen: Abul Hasan ath-Thâlith.
Title: An-Naqi; al-Hâdi.
Father: Muhammad at-Taqi.
Mother: Samana.
Birth: 15th Dhil Hijja, 212 AH in Sarya, near Medina.
Death: 3rd Rajab 254 AH in Samarra, Iraq.

 

1. Birth & Early Years
Imam ‘Ali an-Naqi (also known as al-Hâdi), was the son of the ninth Imam. He was born on 15th Dhil Hijja in 212/827 in Sarya, outside Medina. At the age of eight in 220, he became the Imam. After having seen his father’s example, the Shi‘a community had no more problems in accepting such a young Imam.

 

2. Rulers of the Time
The thirtythree years of imamate of Imam ‘Ali an-Naqi coincided with the caliphate of the following six caliphs Mu‘tasim bin Hârun, Wâthiq bin Mu‘tasim, Mutawakkil bin Mu‘tasim, Muntasir bin Mutawakkil, Musta‘in, and Mu‘tazz bin Mutawakkil.
Wâthiq bin Mu‘tasim had a very promiscuous lifestyle, and had no time to harass the Shi‘as and the Imams of the Ahlul Bayt. During his caliphate, a large number of the descendants of Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) had settled in Samarra, the ‘Abbasid capital. But the peaceful days for the ‘Alids and the Imam did not last long. After Wâthiq, his brother Mutawakkil, came to power. Mutawakkil was the most cruel of all the ‘Abbasid caliphs; he is comparable to Yazîd bin Mu‘âwiyah of the Umayyads.
Mutawakkil, on the one hand, started promoting the Shâfi‘i madhhab in order to distract the masses away from the Ahlul Bayt. And, on the other hand, he intensified harassment of the Shi‘as. He had such hatred for the Ahlul Bayt that in 236 A.H. he ordered the grave of Imam Husayn (a.s.) be leveled to the ground, and that the surrounding area be transformed into farmlands so that no trace of the grave be left. This all was done to stop the Shi‘as from visiting (ziyârat) the graves of Imam Husayn (a.s.) and the other martyrs of Karbala. But when Allâh wishes to protect His “light” no human can do anything about it!
The attempt to erase all traces of Imam Husayn’s grave angered many Muslims; people starting writing anti-‘Abbâsid slogans on the walls. Opposition poets also expressed their feelings on this issue. A famous poem against Mutawakkil is given below: By Allâh, if the Umayyids unjustly killed Husayn, son of the Prophet’s daughter, his cousins have committed a similar crime for I swear that Husayn’s grave has been erased.
It seems that they regret for not participating in the massacre, so they now go after the grave!
Mutawakkil enjoyed torturing the followers of the Ahlul Bayt; even the persons appointed by him as governor in Medina and Mecca were instructed to prevent people from being kind and courteous towards the Ahlul Bayt. In 234 A.H., Mutawakkil ordered Imam ‘Ali an-Naqi (a.s.) to be brought from Medina to Samarra where he was placed in a house next to the caliph’s garrison. The Imam lived under constant surveillance until Mutawakkil was murdered by his own troops at the instigation of his own son, Muntasir.
Muntasir bin Mutawakkil reversed the policies of his father towards the Ahlul Bayt (a.s.); he was kind and generous to them; he returned the property of Fadak to the descendants of Imams Hasan and Husayn (a.s.). Unfortunately his caliphate did not last for more than six months when he died in 248 A.H.
Musta‘in came to power after Muntasir and continued the oppressive policies of his ancestors. But soon his own Turkish troops rebelled against him and pledged allegiance to Mu‘tazz bin Mutawakkil whom they rescued from prison. Finally, Musta‘in was killed and Mu‘tazz become the caliph.
It was during the reign of Mu‘tazz bin Mutawakkil that Imam ‘Ali an-Naqi was martyred by poisoning.

Imam Tortured by Abbasid Caliphs:
After the death of al - Ma'mun , al - Mu`tasim succeeded him , and was later followed by the caliph al - Wathiq . In the first five years of the reign of al - Wathiq , Imam Ali al - Hadi ( an - Naqi ) lived peacefully . After al - Wathiq , al - Mutawakkil came to power . Being too occupied in State affairs , al - Mutawakkil did not get any time to harass the Imam and his followers for four years .
But as soon as he freed himself from State affairs , he started to molest the Imam . The Holy Imam devoted himself to the sacred mission of preaching in Medina and did thus earn the faith of the people as well as their allegiance and recognition of his great knowledge and attributes . This reputation of the Imam evored the jealousy and malice of al - Mutawakkil against him. 
The governor of Medina wrote to al - Mutawakkil that Imam `Ali al - Hadi had been manoeuvring a coup against the government and a multitude of Shi'ites were pledged to his support . Although enraged by this news al - Mutawakkil still preferred the diplomacy of not arresting the Holy Imam. Under the garb of pretended respect and love towards the Imam , he planned to put him under life imporisonment after inviting him to his palace. 
Prior to his imprisonment , in a series of correspondence with the Imam, he expressed the view that he was convinced of all the claims of the Imam and was ready to settle them amicably . He wrote to the Imam that having been acquainted with his great personality , his matchless knowledge and his peerless attributes , he was impatiently looking forward to the honour of seeing him , and he most cordially invited him to Samarra' .

3. Two Companions of the Imam
One of the most distinguished of all the companions of Imam ‘Ali an-Naqi was ‘Abdul ‘Azim al-Hasani (a descendant of Imam Hasan) whose grave outside the city of Tehran has become a famous place for visitation (ziyârat). ‘Abdul ‘Azim had met and heard ahâdith from the companions of the sixth, seventh and eight Imams; and he himself has narrated many ahâdith from the ninth and tenth Imams.
Abu Hammâd Râzi narrates that once Imam ‘Ali an-Naqi (a.s.) told him that “whenever you have religious problems, go to ‘Abdul ‘Azim and also convey my salaams to him.”
Once ‘Abdul ‘Azim al-Hasani came to Imam ‘Ali an-Naqi (a.s.) and said, “O son of the Prophet! I would like to describe my faith to you so that if you agree with it then I will stay firm upon it till the last moment of my life.” When the Imam gave his approval, ‘Abdul ‘Azim described his faith as follows: “I believe that God is One; there is nothing like Him; He is free from ibtâl (i.e., saying that He is ‘nothing’) and tashbîh (i.e., comparing Him to a created thing). Allâh has no body or figure; neither is He substance nor form; intead, He is the creator of body and figure, and of substance and form. He is the creator and sustainer of everything.
“I believe that Muhammad (s.a.w.) is a servant and prophet of God, and His last Messenger. There will be no prophet, shari‘ah or religion after him till the day of judgement.
“I believe that the Imam and successor of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) was ‘Ali bin Abi Tâlib (a.s.), and after him Hasan, then Husayn, ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn, Muhammad bin ‘Ali, Ja‘far bin Muhammad, Musa bin Ja‘far, ‘Ali bin Musa, Muhammad bin ‘Ali, and then you are my master.”
Imam ‘Ali an-Naqi (a.s.) then said, “After me, my son Hasan, will be the Imam. How do you think the people will react in regard to Hasan’s son [i.e., the Mahdi]?”
‘Abdul ‘Azim: “O my master! How will he [i.e., Hasan’s son] be?”
Imam an-Naqi (a.s.): “He will not be seen; and mentioning his name is not permissible until he rises and fills the earth with justice just as it would be filled with injustice and tyranny.”
‘Abdul ‘Azim then continued: “I testify that their [i.e., Imams’] friend is God’s friend; and their enemy is God’s enemy; obeying them is obedience to God; and disobeying them is disobeying God.
“I believe in the mi‘râj, the questioning in the grave, paradise, hell, the path (sirât), the scale—all these are truth. I believe that the day of judgement is sure to come without any doubt, and that God will resurrect the dead people.
“I believe that my religious obligations after wilâyah (love and obedience to the Imams) are prayers, alms-giving, fasting, pilgrimage to Mecca, jihâd, bidding good and forbidding evil.”
Imam ‘Ali an-Naqi (a.s.) said, “O Abul Qâsim! By Allâh, this is the same religion that Allâh has chosen for His servants! So remain firm on it; and may Allâh keep you steadfast on this truth.”
Musa bin ‘Abdullâh an-Nakha‘î was another learned companion of the Imam. Once he went to the Imam and requested him for a comprehensive ziyârat he could use to recite whenever he visits the graves of any of the Imams of Ahlul Bayt. This ziyârat became famous as Ziyârat-e Jâmi‘a whose selected parts are presented below: “...May peace be upon you O the People of the house of prophethood, the source of messengership, the people on whom angels descend and where revelation used to come down; the family which is the source of mercy, custodians of knowledge, peaks of forbearance, foundations of generosity, leaders of nations, masters of blessings, the cream of pious people, pillars of kindness, leaders of people...doors of imân, trustees of the Merciful God, family of prophets and messengers, and descendants of the best of those chosen by the Lord of the Universe...
“May peace be upon the Imams of guidance, lamps in the darkness, signs of piety, those who possess wisdom and intelligence, the refuge for people, the heirs of prophets, the best of examples...the proofs of God upon the people of this world and the hereafter...
“I bear witness that there is no god but Allâh, He has no partner just as Allâh has declared it Himself and so have the angels and the knowledgeable among His servants. There is no god but He, the Powerful, the Wise. I bear witness that Muhammad is His chosen servant and a messenger with whom He is pleased, and whom He has sent with guidance and the religion of truth so that He may give victory to it over all religions even if the polytheists dislike it.
“I bear witness that you are the rightly-guided leaders, the infallibles, the respected ones, those who are closest to Allâh, the pious, the truthful, the chosen ones; those who are obedient to Allâh, who are firm in His command, who act according to His wish, who have attained His respect. Allâh has chosen you by His knowledge, and He has chosen you for His [knowledge of the] unseen and His secret...
“One who turns away from you has gone out of religion; one who stays with you reaches the religion; and one who lowers you from your status is lost. The truth is with you, in you, from you, towards you—you are its owners and custodians...One who loves you, loves Allâh; one who hates you, hates Allâh; one who seeks refuge with you has sought refuge with Allâh...
“O Allâh! If I could find any intercessors closer to You than Muhammad and his good progeny, the pious Imams, I would have made them my intercessors. [But there is no one closer to you than Muhammad and his family.] So by the right that You have given to them over Yourself, I pray to You to include me among those who truly know them and their rights, among those on whom You have showered mercy through their intercession. You are indeed the most merciful of all. And may Allâh send His blessings upon Muhammad and his pure progeny. Indeed Allâh is sufficient for us and He is the best of agents.”

Imam Prisoned in Samarra
Although the Imam was well aware of al - Mutawakkil's treacherous intentions , he anticipating the fatal consequences of refusing the offer , reluctantly decided to leave Medina . But when the Imam arrived at Samarra' and al - Mutawakkil was informed about it , he took no notice of the Imam's arrival. when asked about where the Imam should stay , he ordered that the Imam should be put up in the inn meant for beggars , destitutes and homeless people. 
Al-Mutawakkil who was a deadly enemy of the Ahlul-Bayt , removed the Imam from this inn and entrusted him to the custody of a stone - hearted brute named Zurafah . But , by the grace of Allah , his enmity was , in a short time , transformed into love and devotion for the Imam . When al - Mutawakkil learnt about it , he shifted the Imam into the custody of another cruel man called Sa'id . The Imam remained under his strict vigilance for a number of years , during which he was subjected to boundless tortures .
But even in this miserable imprisonment , the Imam kept devoting himself at all times to the worship of Allah . The watchman of the prison used to comment that Imam `Ali al - Hadi seemed to be an angel in human garb. When Fath ibn Khaqan became the vizier of al - Mutawakkil , he being a Shi`ah could not stand the idea of the Imam's captivity . He endeavoured to have him released from imprisonment and arranged for his comfortable residence in a personally purchased house at Samaraa' .

 

Historical Event:
Still al - Mutawakkil could hardly refrain from his antagonism to the Imam and he appointed spies to watch the Imam and his connections . But through all these attempts , his hope of creating some fabrication to prove the Imam's activity against himself could not be realized. In the time of al - Mutawakkil there was a woman named Zaynab who claimed to be a decendant of Imam Husayn . al - Mutawakkil sought the confirmation of Zaynab's claim from the Imam and said : 
``That as the beasts are prohibited to eat the flesh of the descendants of Imam Husayn he would throw Zaynab to the beasts and test her claim .'' 
On hearing this , Zaynab began to tremble and confessed that she was a fake . al - Mutawakkil then ordered the Imam to be thrown to the beasts to test the claim . To his great surprise , he witnessed the beasts prostrating their heads before the Imam.

 

Once al - Mutawakkil happened to suffer from a serious malady which was eventually declared incurable by his physicians . When the Imam was approached for some remedy , he prescribed an application which resulted in a spontaneous cure. Once al - Mutawakkil was informed that the Imam was preparing a revolt against him . Thereupon , he ordered a detachment of the army to launch a raid on the Imam's residence . When the soldiers entered his house , they found him sitting on a mat , reciting the Holy Qur'an.

 

Imam Martyred 
Not only al - Mutawakkil , but his successors' opposition to the Imam was fierce . After the death of al - Mutawakkil , al - Mustansir , al - Musta`in and al - Mu`tazz carried on the same mission of harassent against the family of the Imam. al - Mu`tazz , understanding the uncontrollable and intense devotion of the people towards the Imam , eventually contrived the Imam's assassination. He got him poisoned through an ambassador which resulted in the Imam's death within a few hours .
The martyrdom occurred on 3rd Rajab 254 AH , and his funeral prayer was conducted by his son , Imam Hasan al - `Askari . The Imam was only forty - two years old at the time of martyrdom . The period of his Imamate was thirty - five years . He was buried in Sammarra' Iraq.


source : http://www.abna.ir/
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