Thursday 29th of July 2021
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The Luminous Life Of Imam Zainol Abedin (S)


In accordance with the most reliable narrations, Imam Sajjad(s) was born on Thursday of the significant month of Sha’aban, in the thirty eighth year of Hijraee, two years prior to the martyrdom of Imam Ali(s), in the city of Medina, from a generous father named Hossein(s) and a benevolent mother named Salafeh who was from a noble and deep-rooted household, who was called by Imam Ali(s) as Maryam.

Because of this noble birth and such magnificent roots, Imam Sajjad(s) was nicknamed as “Ibn Al-Kheyratein”.

The leader of the God-believers, the Imam of Gnostics, the pivot of the pious, Imam Ali(s) in praising his wife Salafeh told his son:

وهي اُمُّ الأوصياء الذريّة الطيّبة.

“My son, your mother Salafeh, will be the mother of the Infallible and is the root for a clean generation”

His dearest name is Ali. What is clear from the narrations, Ali was Hossein’s eldest son. Hossein(s) had two other sons by the name of Ali, which were respectively called Ali Akbar, Ali Owsat, And Ali Asghar. [The eldest was Ali Akbar; the middle one was Ali Owsat, and the youngest one was Ali Asghar].

The reason why Hossein(s) gave the name Ali to the three sons of his was his peculiar love towards his honorable father Imam Ali(s). By this selection he wanted to teach his people, the Moslems, a lesson; i.e., to adopt the best and most meaningful names for their children so that when they are called clean, divine features may be associated in the mind of the callers so that through this way a divine spark may strike the caller’s heart.

Due to numerous states, features, characteristics, traits, perfections and ethics, that Imam had a lot of surnames, some of which appears below, and all of which had special meanings and manifestations throughout his life:

Seyyedol Abedin, Zainol Salehin, wareth of Elm Al-Nabiin, Vasiyol Vasiin, Khazen Vasaya Al-Morsalim, Imamol Mo’amenin, Menarol-qanetin wal khashen’in, Motehajjed, Zahid, Ahid, Adl, Sajjad, Bakka’, Zol thafenat, Imamol Ommah, Abol A’emmeh, Habib, Zaki, Amin, and Zainol Abedin.

There are two interesting narrations concerning his nickname “Zainol Abedin”.

1) Omran Ibn Salim says: when zohri narrated a topic from Ali Ibn Hossein, he would say:

“Zainol Abedin narrated that…” Once Sofyan Ibn Oyyaneh asked him, “Why do you call him Zainol Abedin?”

He answered: I heard Sa’eed Ibn Mosayyeb saying that the Prophet said: On the Resurrection Day a caller would call: where is the ornament for the worshippers?”

يُنادي منادٍ: أين زين العابدين؟

“I foresee that my son Ali Ibn Hossein with dignity and prestige will rise among people to reach his special position”.

The same narration is reported in the precious book called Elalol sharaie’ by Saduq who has heard it from Ali Ibn Ibrahim Qommi, from Ibn Abbas, from the God’s Messenger.

2) At the dawn of one morning Imam Zainol Abedin(s) was worshipping God, a love-based invocation, a sincere prayer. Now Satan manifested in a horrifying posture in front of him to disturb the happy moments with his love. That Imam paid no attention to that fearful ghost and continued his bending, standing in worship. Suddenly, he heard a speaker from the invisible world, who cried three times, saying:

you are in fact Zainol Abedin

انت زين العابدين حقّاً.

When he engaged in the act of ablution, Zainol Abedin’s face turned yellow. Some of his household members asked him why his face color changed at the time of ablution. He answered “Do you know I am standing ready in front of who?”

When he stood praying, his body would tremble. In answer to a question raised concerning this, he answered: “I get this state of body and mind when standing in the presence of my love.”

One day, when he was engaged in prostration (bowing down during prayer), the room was on fire and there was the danger of the spread of the fire. People shouted: Prophet’s son, fire! Fire.

The people put the fire out, but that enchanted lover was still on prostration. When the prayer was over, they asked him: “What caused you to ignore our warning?” He answered:

“The fire of the next world.”

Concerning the worshiper’s prayers, a narration is reported from Imam Zainol Abedin(s):

اِنَّ قوماً عَبَدوا الله رهبة، فّتِلك عِبادةُ العبيد، وآخرين عَبَدُوه رغبةً فتِلك عبادَةُ التجّار، واِنَّ قوماً عَبَدوا الله شكراً، فَتِلكَ عِبادةً الأحرار.

“A group of people worship God out of their fear of chastisement; this is the worship of the slaves and the coward servants. Some worship the Great love in a great zeal to arrive at the heaven; this is the work of the business men; and finally, a group worship Him to thank Him and because He deserves to be worshipped: This is the worship of the free men.”

His worship was free from fear or zeal; rather, he wanted God for his Godship. In neither of his prayers did he expect rewards. He never started a prayer for fear of punishment.

If he missed the day’s Nafeleh due to his too much activities, at night he compensated for it. He used to tell his children; this schedule is not compulsory for you, but I like you carry on with a program you have got used to. You could carry it out some time later if you missed it at the appointed time.

“Kashfol Qamme” says: Every twenty four hours he prayed one thousand raka’ats [Unit of prayer] and when the morning arrived he used to become unconscious. He would forget himself so much that with the breeze of wind he would sway right and left like a wheat stalk.

Imam Khomeini(s), the great gnostic of Divine knowledge in his “Adab Al-Salat” concerning such a prayer has said.”

“Those who are attracted by the beauty of the Beautiful, the ones who are enchanted by the Everlasting Beauty, those who are drunken with the bowl of kindness, those who are in ecstasy, those who are free from both worlds, those who do not consider existence of any value, and those who have associated with Allah, those are the ones who are away from contemplation, observation and Involvement with Allah.

“Those who are the possessors of knowledge, and virtues, who are noble in their selves, who are benevolent in nature, will never prefer anything over prayers and from their invocations in private, they are only looking for God and search for honor, honesty, virtue and knowledge in their prayers.”

“If such people consider the world, both here and there, their look is agnostic. In the world they are after truth and recognize all the creatures as manifestations of God, the Absolute Beauty”.

From the presence of God, they love the mere presence and will see their servitude in complete association with the Absolute Prefect; and their eagerness for worship is of this kind.

“But we wretched ones are entangled by wishes and whims, are tied with the chains of lusts, deep in the prison of nature where we receive ho fragrance of love, no pleasure of knowledge and Gnosticism or from virtues; we are not people of Gnosticism, neither are we the holders of true faith, we consider the divine worships as hard tasks and; invocation with God is considered by us as too much; we are fond of nothing except the world, which is the grazing place for the beasts; we are inclined towards the nature, which is the resort of the tyrants. Our heart’s insight towards the beauty of the Absolute Beauty is blind and our spiritual taste for Gnosticism is distant!”

Imam Baqir(s) says: My father, Imam Sajjad(s) did not refer to any affluence without going on prostration, without reading some verses from the Holy Quran which deal with prostration. When he got rid of a suffering, he would go on prostration. He did not end a prayer without using prostration. When he made two adversaries stop their disagreements, he went on prostration. In all cases his prostration was real; that is why my father was given the nickname Sajjad [A man who engages in may prostrations].

On his divine temper, we read: His happiness with God’s planning was his bed, and his joy in worships was his carpet; the confirmation of truth was his friend, and his avoidance of committing anything un-Godly was his sincerity; his robe was his prayer-rug and his shelter was his grave. His bedcover was his insistence in serving God and his sleep was his bowing towards God. His job it was to burn in the love of God.

Paying pilgrimage to Mecca and the prophet’s heram was his business; his eagerness to serve people was his market; showing kindness was his fragrance; his job it was to worship; honor was his robe, prudence was his weapons, his palfrey was the ground, his capital was his hunger; his wish was a voyage to the Hereafter; and his satisfaction was in meeting with the Great love.

At all phases of his life, Imam Sajjad(s) spent his time in supplication and prayers. His keenness in supplication and prayers was so strange that wherever his sacred name is called, mourning, insistence in worship, invocations and prayers will come to our mind.

The Supplication of Khams Ashar, the supplication of Abu Hamzeh Thomali at the dawn of the month of Ramathan, some portions of the pilgrimage Aminollah, and fifty four invocations of Sahifeh are manifestations of the great soul of that Imam.

It would need God’s special concern and it would take a long time and effort to describe the khams Ashar supplication and Abu Hamze invocation and Imam’s other supplications which appear in Mesbah of Kafa’mi and in Zadol Mia’ad and Baladol Amin and Mafatih by Mohaddes Qommi.

This humble creature, this wretched one, and this miserable disabled writer wishes that God would enable him to describe and interpret all Sajjad’s invocations, which are the source of Imam’s knowledge.

Here we will refer to some portions of his supplications and hope they will save us from the satanic miseries we are entrenched in:

1) Asa’mi, the well-known literary man says: One night I had gone to pay pilgrimage to Mecca when I saw a handsome man hanging from the Mecca cloth, supplicating with the Lord in these words:

“Now the eyes are in deep sleep; and the stars are high in the sky. You are the king of everything. The kings and world-mongers have closed their doors to people and have the police guard their castles and houses so that nobody could bother them at night. But your doors of benevolence are open to the poor. A beggar like me have come here to gain your benevolence and blessings; O sacred being who are the most merciful.” And then he whispered a poem with the following Content: You are the one who answer to the invocations of the poor in the darkness of the night! You are the one who open up a puzzle! Your guests are asleep around your house, but you are the keeper of all creation and are awake. I have risen to stand to the supplication which you have ordered. Please show me your blessings for the prestige of your house. Who else should a sinner resort to except you”?

I went after the suppliant. I found him to be Imam Sajjad, Imam Zainol Abedin(s).

2) Tavus, The jurisprudent says: I saw Ali Ibn Al-Hussein, Imam Sajjad(s) in God’s house praying all night long. When he saw no body around, he stared at the sky, supplicating with the greatest of all loves, the most well-known of Gnostics, the Beloved of the lovers:

“O God, the stars of the sky have disappeared, eyes are asleep, your presence is ready for the arrival of beggars. A beggar like me has come to seek your benevolence. I hope you will let me meet the Great Prophet on the resurrection day”

Then he started weeping like the spring clouds, saying to the Great Friend:

“O God! I did not oppose you when I committed sins and at that time there was no doubt in my heart towards you; I was not ignorant towards your chastisement and I did not shun your punishment. This misguiding self of mine deceived me and it was my hope to be forgiven by you which made me to stumble. Now who is it to save me from your punishment? Which strong chord shall I put my hands on if you disassociate with me? I tremble the moment when you summon me for trial, when you let the sin-free people easily pass by and let the sinful ones fall in the Hell. On that day, I will either be among sin-free people to get salvage or I will be under the heavy load of sins to be punished by you. Woe to me that I added to my sins as my life progressed. I did not try to repent either.” Then he cried, saying:

“Will you burn me on Hell fire? O the end-point of my desires! Then what is going to happen to my love towards you?”

“O my sire, I have resorted to you while I am replete with sins, and I confess there is no one more sinful than me among your servants.”

Then he burst into tears, saying:

“You are free from any defects. People get themselves so involved in committing sins as if they were away from your observation and you are so patient towards them as if they had not committed sins. You show kindess to people in such a manner as if you needed their help, while your sacred being is needless of all.”

Then, he fell on the ground, passionately going on prostration. I went up to him. I took his head on my knees.

I started crying so strongly that some of my tears fell on his clean face. He then sat down, asking me: who is it that took me away from my Lord and made me busy paying attention to something else?

I replied: I am Tavus O son of the God’s prophet; what is the reason for this mourning and emotionalism? it is us the wrong _ doors who should cry in the presence of our Lord, why you? Your father was Hussein, your mother was Fatima, and your grand - father was the prophet.

He looked at me, saying: ah, ah, Tavus, leave the talking about father, mother, and grand - father aside. God has created the paradise for the obedient servant of his, whether he is a black person from Ethiopia or someone else. Have you not heard not heard the following verse from the Holy Quran:

فَإِذَا نُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَلَا أَنسَابَ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ وَلَا يَتَسَاءَلُونَ.

“So when the trumpet is blown, there shall be no ties of relationship between them on that day, nor shall they ask of each other. Quran 23: 101”

I may swear to God that on the day of Resurrection nothing can help you except those good acts which you have sent in advance.

3) Tavus, the jurisprudent says: I saw Imam Sajjad praying in Hejr Ismael, chanting:

عُبَيْدُكَ ببابِكَ اسيرُكَ بفنائكَ مسكينُكَ بفنائِكَ، سائِلُكَ بفنائِكَ يشكوُ اليْكَ ماَلا يَخْفي عليْكَ، لا تَرُدَّني عنْ بابَكَ.

Here is a small servant at your presence, a mortal prisoner, a mortal bedridden, a mortal beggar at your presence. He has come here to complain on something which you already know; be kind and do not throw him out of your home.

4) Imam Sadiq (s) says: One day Imam Mohammad Baqir(s) arrived at the home of his father, Imam Sajjad(s). Imam Sajjad was engaged in a prayer in an unprecedented manner. He looked yellow due to the lack of sleep. It seemed his eyes had burned because of excessive weeping; his forehead was wounded because of the repeated prostrations. His legs were hurt because of much standing position. Imam Baqir(s), seeing this condition, could not stop crying.

Imam Sajjad(s) was contemplating and turned to his son, saying: bring me the paper on which there are records of Ali’s prayers. He read some of it and then put it down, saying: who can go on worshipping like Ali Ibn Abi Talib?

5) One night he was engaged in supplication and worship. One of his children fell and broke his hand. The members of family shouted; the neighbors gathered; they brought a physician and he wrapped bandage around the child’s hand. In the morning, he saw his son’s hand hanging from his neck. He asked for the reason. They told him it happened when he was absorbed in his prayers.

6) when Imam Sajjad(s) stood praying, his face changed colors and his posture at the time of prayer was like that of a poor servant standing in front of his Lord. His limbs trembled due to the reverie he was under. He acted in each prayer as if it were his last prayer.

All this was because of his clean and heavenly heart and his vast knowledge of the great creator.

He was elected by God as the fourth shining star in the sky of Imamate to be used as a sample for prosperity both here and in the hereafter by people from all stands of life.

His nephew says: I was encouraged by Fatima, daughter of Imam Hussein(s), to serve Imam Sajjad(s). Whenever I sat next to him, a door to goodness opened up to me. I got awe and reverie towards God inside me because of his reverie towards God inside me because of his reverie towards Allah. I learned a piece of useful knowledge from my association with him.

Ibn Shahab Zohri says: the best member of Bani Hashem was Imam Zainol Abedin(s).

Saeed Ibn Kolthum says: I was at the presence of Imam Sadiq(s). We talked about Imam Ali(s). The sixth Imam praised Imam Ali(s) in such a way as he deserved it.

Then, he said: He never ate a haram (unlawful, Islamically prohibited ) food up to his last day of life. And he chose the more difficult plan of any two plans for God. Whenever the Prophet met with an accident, he was asked to help him out. Nobody except him could engage in prayers such as the Prophet (s). At the time of action, he looked like a person who was between the paradise and the hell. He hoped for God’s reward and was frightened of His punishment. To satisfy God, he freed one thousand slaves through his hard works. The food of his family members was a mixture of oil, vinegar and dates. His dress was made of canvas. If his clothes sleeves were long he would ask for a pair of scissors to cut them. Among his Household he was unique in dress and jurisprudence.

A cursory look at the narrations on that Imam and attention to the depth of the invocation received from him will depict the sublime personality and the Godly–based human features of this sample of virtues, truths and genuine prosperity.

Zohri says: when I was with Imam Sajjad (s), we met Abdol Malik Ibn Marvan. The effects of worship on the face of Imam Sajjad (s) caused Marvan’s great surprise.

Marvan told Imam Sajjad (s): From your countenance I can observe the effects of heavy worship. While you have a good record with God and you are part of the body of the Prophet (s) and you enjoy a great amount of virtues, you still engage in worship no less than Prophet, Ali, Fatima, Hassan and Hossein (s).

Marvan was engaged in praising Imam Sajjad (s) while the fourth Imam, said: “What you ascribed to me is not mine; rather, it belongs to the mercy and benevolence of God. It is just a manifestation of the great friend’s confirmation. Tell me with what sort of power should I compensate for all this asset? The Prophet continued with his prayers so excessively that his legs used to swell. He engaged so much in fasting that he used to have dried mouth. They asked the Prophet: is it not the case that according to Holy Quran you are pardoned? Then, why so much prayers?

The great Prophet (s) replied: Don’t you want me to be a thankful servant of God? I should thank God for selecting me for worship and he let me come out successful from a difficult exam. I only will thank Him. I swear to God I am not able to thank him for one tenth of all his sustenance and assets he has bestowed upon me even if my limbs go apart and my eyes pop out. I swear to God I will not quit praying him so much so that he may see me day and night like this.

If I did not have to carry the compulsory tasks towards my Household and people in general, I would gaze at the creation all my life so that the Great Allah may know that He is the best commander”. Then Imam Sajjad (s) burst into tears and Abdol Malik too started crying. Then Imam said, “How far is the distance between a Hereafter–seeker and his trial to get at it and the man who concentrates on the world, but lacks everything in the Hereafter”.

Abdollh Mobarik Says: I was going to Mecca when I saw a boy of seven or eight years of age going steadily towards the Harem (Mecca). I asked my self how it was possible for such a young child to cross the deserts to reach to Mecca. I went up to him asking where he was coming from. He said: from God. I asked him where he was headed for, He replied: towards God. I asked him: with whom did you pass this horrible desert? He answered: with the Benevolent God. I asked him where his camel was. He replied: My sustenance is virtue, my camel is my leg, and my objective is the Great Friend. I asked him which tribe he was from. He replied: Motallabi. I asked him who his father was. He replied: I am Hashemid. I told him to be more clear; He answered. I am Alavi, Fatemi. I asked him if he had written a poem. His answer was positive. I asked him to read. He read something with the following content:

“It is us who gather around the Kouthar Spring. We let the qualified thirsty ones drink from it and we will protect them on the Doomsday. Nobody could get to prosperity without our help. Anybody who has connection with us becomes prosperous. One who, through his faith and actions, makes us happy will become delighted. And any one who rose against us in enmity had some problems in his roots. Any one who confiscated our rights would be accountable to God in the Hereafter”.

When he finshed reading this poem, he disappeared. I went to Mecca. I carried out the rituals. On the way back, I saw a group of people sitting on a big circle. I suddenly saw that young man among them. I asked people: who is this ellegant young man? They replied: It is Ali Ibn Hossein (s).

Like his descent father, Zainol Abedin enjoyed all ethical virtues and was flawless in the areas of mannerism and ethics.

No event could stop him from manifesting God’s traits. No sin was performed by him.

This poor writer referred to all books on narrations and history to find references to this Imam. I will present some of them here. I hope they will help us. These points could be seen in Beharol Anver, A’alamol Din, Kashfol Qemma, Managib of Ibn Shaher Ashub, E’lamol Vera, and Mostadrak Safineh.

A man called that Imam names. The Imam did not answer him. Then the man went away. Imam returned to his friends asking them: Did you hear what he told me? Come with me, I will tell you what. I told him in reply.

The crowd said: we will come with you: the Imam started walking, reading this verse:

وَالْكَاظِمِينَ الْغَيْظَ وَالْعَافِينَ عَنْ النَّاسِ وَاللَّهُ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ.

“And those who restrain their anger and pardon me; and Allah loves the doers of good to others. Quran 3:134”

It became clear to us that Imam did not want to have anything to do with the abuser. Upon arriving at the door of the man, Imam wanted to see him. He said: Tell the house – owner I am Ali Ibn Hossein. The house – owner who was worried about revenge came to the door. Imam said: Some minutes ago you said something regarding me. If I deserve it, I ask God to pardon me. if I do not deserve it, I ask God to pardon you.

The home owner kissed the Imam’s forehead, saying: O son of Prophet (s). What I said can not be found in you. It is me who should be pardoned by Allah.

He was riding and passed a group of people suffering from Lepresy. Nobody wanted to associate with them.

They were eating lunch, when they saw the Imam, they invited him to their food.

He said: If I were not fasting, I would come and eat with you. When he arrived at home, however he ordered special food for them and then invited all of them and sat beside them, eating the food.

Let us like the Sire of believers, the Pride of the Devotees, help those helpless ones, treat amicably towards those deprived of any kindness and the needy ones. Let us be knowledgeable in the school of these lovers of the absolute Beauty for the rest of our lives.

Hesham Ibn Ismaeel was appointed as the governor general of Medina by Abdol Malik Marvan.

This position led him to excessive pride, and tyranny.

And injustice. He committed unlawful crimes. One of the people who was hurt by him most was Imam Zainol Abedin (s).

When he was deposed, the new governor general called, Valid, got duty of fastening the previous governor to a column so that every person could retaliate him.

People heard him say that he was worried of Imam Zainol Abedin because he had suffered the most.

Imam ordered his followers not to trouble him. Then he went to see Hesham, telling him, I am worried about you, my cousin. What ever you need tell me. I will make it ready. Hesham shouted:

اَلله ُاَعْلَمُ حَيْثُ يَجْعَلُ رِسالَتَهُ.

“God knows where to put his message”.

Once he called one of his servants twice. He refused to answer. At the third calling he answered; Imam asked the reason for not answering the first two calls. He said:

O son of Prophet: I was safe from your punishment. The fourth Imam started thanking Allah: O God! I thank you that my servants feel safe with me.

There were many poor families in Medina who were supplied with their needs, but did not know what the source was. When Zainol Abedin(s) got martyred, all those plans were out of order. Then these families understood the source of their food and clothing.

Zaid Ibn Osame Ibn Zaid started crying at his death - bed. Imam Zainol Abedin(s) was watching him and asked him for the reason. He answered: I owe people fifteen thousand Derhames. What I possess will not cover my debts however. Imam replied: I will pay all of your debts. Stop weeping because now you owe nobody anything. Then he paid the man’s debts and rescued him in this way.

On a cold night one of his slaves saw him on the way to the mosque while having new dress and a fur turban on and having used fragrance. He asked: master, where are you going at this time of the night? He answered: I am going to the mosque of my grand – father to marry Hurol ‘Ein.

How elegant it is for Moslems to go to Mosque with the best of their dresses and best kind of fragrance. They will become delighted in this way and the cleanliness of the mosque will be observed as well.

To earn his sustenance, he used to leave home early every morning. When they asked him where he was going so early in the morning, he used to answer: I am going to give alms to my wives. They surprisingly would ask him: alms? He would answer: yes, what is earned through legal means is God’s alms to servants.

Imam Sajjad(s) says: I severely got sick. My father, Hossein (s) told me: what do you need? I answered: I wish not to put any duty on to God for myself. He will do for me anything that He deems advisable. I love to obey Him absolutely. My father said, well done, now you are like Ibrahim Khalil. When he was going to be put on fire, Jibrael asked him what he wanted. He answered: I will not appoint any task for God. I am happy with Allah. He is my best protector all my life.

One day his woman servant was pouring water from a pitcher on his hands to perform his ablution. Due to her lack of attention, the pitcher fell from her hands and hurt Imam’s forehead.

Imam rose his head. The servant said: God says:

وَالْكَاظِمِينَ الْغَيْظَ.

“Those who restrain their anger” Imam said, “I restrained my angers”

The servant said:

وَالْعَافِينَ عَنْ النَّاسِ.

“and pardon men”. Imam said, “I pardoned you. “The servant said,

 اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ.

“And Allah loves the doers of good to others” Imam said, “you are free for God’s sake.3:134”

Imam Sadiq (s) says: There was a dissolute, wandering man in Medina who made people laugh with his strange and funny behaviors.

One day when Ali Ibn Hossein (s) with two of his servants were walking, the man followed the Imam to perform a joke. He took away the Imam’s cloak in front of people, and ran away. Then he come back giving the cloak back to Imam. Taking no notice of him, Imam asked his servant who he was. They told him: He is a joker who makes people laugh. Imam said: Tell him: There is a day for God in which the wrongdoers are at loss.

Imam Sadig (s) says: Imam Sajjad (s) in his journeys tried to remain unknown and used to carry out some tasks like other passengers.

Once, he went on a journey with a caravan. He helped them and did his job. Somebody among the travellers recognized him. He asked others whether they know that gentleman. They said “no”.

The man said; he is Ali Ibn Hossein (s). They gathered around him, kissing his hands and feet. They told him: “Did you want us to be punished by God? What could we do if we had accidentally hurt you? We would badly suffer, then”.

Imam Sajjad (s) said: Once I traveled with a caravan. They recognized me.

For the Prophet’s sake they went to extremes in treating me, which I did not deserve. Then, I was deprived of the right to help them. This time, I did not want to repeat the last time’s event. I like this trip, better.

Zainol Abedin (s) at the time of his death told his son, Imam Baqir (s): I went to hajj twenty times with my camel. Never did I strike it with the whip once. When it dies, bury it in a place so that the savage beasts will not tear it up. This is because the Prophet (s) has announced: A camel which arrives at the station Arafat, is of the heaven’s assets and God will give abundance to its breed. When the camel died, Imam Baqir (s) carried out what he had been told.

Imam Sadiq (s) has said: When Imam Zainol Abedin (s) went on fasting on a day, he used to ask his servants to slaughter a sheep and put it in a big pot. He used to enjoy the smell of the baking sheep. When it was near the breaking time of the fast (Iftar), he used to order for some trays to be ready. Then he used to send each portion of it to different houses. He used to break his fasting with a loaf of bread and some dates, however.

Imam Baqir (s) says: When dark covered every where, my father, Imam Sajjad (s), used to carry a leather bag filled with supplies of food and distributed it among the needy proportionate with their needs. But he used to cover his face so that he would remain unknown.

When he was given Qosl at his death, the black traces of that big leather bag were seen on the skin of his shoulders.

Imam Sadiq (s) says: He had woolen dress but when he wanted to engage in prayers, he used to put on rough dresses. He would not deliver it on rugs or on special prayer – cloth. His prostration was on the ground. He used to go to the Jabban Mountain, near Medina, and would sit on a burning stone. In his lovely and Gold – ly – based prostration he used to weep so much that when he rose from it, it looked as if his face was droned in the water.

Imam Sajjad (s) has said:

لَوْ ماتَ مَنْ بَيْنَ المَشْرق وَ المَغْرب لَمَا اَسْتَوْحَشْتُ بَعْدَ اَنْ يَكونَ الْقرآنُ مَعي.

“If all people died in the East and West, and if I were alone on the Earth, I would not fear anything since I am fond of Qoran and I am familiar with this huge source benevolence.”

Iqbal, which is the best book on supplication and invocation by Seyyed Ibn Tavus reports from Imam Sadiq (s):

When the holy month of Ramathan arrived, Imam Sajjad(s) would never punish any of his man–slaves or woman–slaves. If one of them committed a wrong action, there was a note book on which these wrong actions or short–comings got recorded. He would never show disrespect to his servants during this month.

When the last night of Ramathan arrived, Imam would gather all of them around him – self and opened up the book on which the wrong – doings were recorded. Then he called each servant with his or her special wrong – doing. He would tell each of them: you have committed this wrong – doing and you were not punished for it. Do you remember? They would say: yes, the son of the Prophet (s).

When he had the confession of all, he would ask them to repeat after him:

“O son of Hossein Ibn Ali: your God has recorded every action of yours as you have written our mistakes and short–comings in this book. The book which is with God tells the truth. Every big and small sin is written there and you will see justice on that special day as we see the record of our activities here in this book, now!

“O son of Hossein Ibn Ali, frogive us and pardon us as you wish God might forgive and pardon you. As you are the lover of God’s pardon and are looking for that source of benevolence, please let us enjoy your pardon and blessing.

“O son of Hossein Ibn Ali! Remember your misery in front of the Great Love, that Sacred Being who is wise and knowing and will not do the weight of seed of injustice to anybody. He will weigh the actions of the servants and will witness that they have been done. Come and forgive us at a night like this and disregard our wrong–doings because God has said:

وَلْيَعْفُوا وَلْيَصْفَحُوا أَلَا تُحِبُّونَ أَنْ يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ.

“They should pardon and run away. 24: 22”

Do you not love that Allah should forgive you?

He used to express words and inculcated his man–servants and woman – servants and used to shed tears, and cried, telling Allah:

“O God! you ordered me to forgive those who did us wrong; we pardoned them. Therefore, you forgive us, too, since in pardoning you are the first.

“O God! you commanded us not to turn away the beggars from our homes. Now we ourselves have come begging to your home. We are looking for your blessing and benevolence. Please do not send us away hopeless.”

He used to supplicate with God in this manner and continued weeping. Then he turned to his servants, telling them:

“I forgave you. Will you forgive me? I was not a good Lord for you. You saw my bad behaviors. I am not a good Lord”.

They would reply: “Our sire, although we saw nothing bad of you, we will forgive you.”

Then Imam Sajjad(s) would ask them to chant the following invocation:

“O God! Please forgive Hossein’s son, as he has forgiven us. Save him from the Hell fire, as he has made us free.” The man-servants and woman- servants used to chant this invocation and Imam (s) would say: “All of you are free. I set you free to reach God’s pardon and freedom from chastisement”. Then, he would summon them on the festival day of Fiter and helped them each so much as not to be in need.

Each year he did the same, freeing about twenty of his servants and would say: “God at Ramathan at the time of breaking the fasting (Iftar) pardons seventy thousand wrong–doers and when the last night of Ramathan comes, He sets free from the fire equal to the month of Ramathan. I like God to put me on this schedule so that I may get free.”

Of course, it did not make any difference for him at that time he had bought the slaves. What was important for him was to set them free at the last night of Ramathan, although the time of their service to Imam was rather short.

He would carry out this magnificent program each year, and continued till he reached the Great Friend.

One of Zainol Abedin’s cousins was financially in trouble. Imam Abedin(s) would take him money at night without being recognized. The cousins would spread the rumor that Ali Ibn Hossein does not have any family relation with me and does not observe the family ties. He would curse him. Imam used to hear but preferred to remain silent. When Imam (s) passed away, the cousin found out the truth. He would sit by the Imam’s grave, crying for hours, from then on.

One day he was walking with some of his servants. A man called him names. The servants rushed at him, but Imam stopped them. The Imam came up to the man, saying: if you need any thing, let me know. The man got ashamed. Imam gave him his own clock and ordered his servants to pay him one thousand Derhams. The man was then, saying: “I witness you are from the Prophets’ house hold.”

A guest arrived at Zainol Abedin’s home. When a servant was taking hot meal in a tray and hurried downstairs, the tray went off his hand pouring the hot meal on one of the Imam’s children, killing him at once. The slave was in a terrible state of mind but Imam said: “You did not do it on purpose; you are free for God”.

Imam Baqir (s) says: my father sent his servant for a job. But he delayed. Imam whipped him once. The servant said “O son of Hossein, you appoint me work and then hit me”. Imam burst into tears, saying: “O Mohammad Ibn Ali, my dear son, go to the Prophet’s tomb and pray and say: O God, please forgive Ali Ibn Hossein on the Doomsday”. Then he freed the slave for God. Abu Basir says: I asked Imam: “Is freedom the punishment for whipping only once?” Imam did not answere, however.

“Kemaloddin and Tamamol Ne’ma” are two of Saduq’s books. He reports from Zohri: I was at Imam’s presence when one of Imam’s friends arrived. Imam asked him: “What is the news?” He replied: “Let me first tell you about myself. I owe somebody four hundred Dinars. I have nothing to pay him back. I have a big family; I can not support them”. Imam burst into tears. I said to the Imam: crying is for great sorrows. Everybody else said the same thing.

Imam (s) answered: “Is there any thing more disasterous than seeing your brother in need and not being able to fix it up?” The session was over. The hypocrites, hearing the news, started backbiting, saying: “How strange it is! These Imams claim that the sky and the earth are obedient to them and God will Satisfy their needs. Now they confess that they can not solve their brother’s problems!”

The wretched man heard these non-senses and went to meet the Imam, saying: “The sarcasm of the enemy hurts me more than my poverty”. Imam (s) said: “God has opened up a way for your difficulty”. Then he called one of his servants; telling him: “Go fetch my food for the breaking of the fast”. The servant brought him two loaves of barley bread too hard to eat. Imam said: “Take these two loaves of bread. God has put abundance in these loaves for you.” The man took the loaves telling himself: “What have these got to do with my condition?” Satan was tempting him to cast doubt over the whole business. He was thinking hard when he arrived at the market. He exchanged one loaf with a pale and stale fish and another loaf with some salt. He went home, then. When he opened up the fish, he found two pearls there. He and his children thanked God for this great asset. At that time both the fisher and the salt–seller came up to his house, telling him the loaves of bread were impossible to eat. They told him: “Let your family enjoy the fish and the salt.”

When the fisher and salt–seller went, Zainol Abedin’s servant came up to the man, telling him: “O man! God opened up your puzzle but Imam Sajjad has ordered us to take back the two loaves of bread since no body except us could eat them.

The man sold the pearls and could pay off his debts. Now people started telling nonsense once again: “At one occasion he can not solve the man’s problem; at another occasion he has made this man so needless.” When this was heard by Imam, he answered: “People used to utter such nonsense’s behind the back of the Prophet (s), as well. People said how the Prophet could have gone from Mecca to Jerusalem in one night, while the distance between Mecca and Medina was twelve days, let alone the distance between Mecca and Jerusalem”. Imam, then, said: “People are ignorant about us. They do not know that this position is given to us because of our absolute obedience to God. The God’s men are so patient in the face of misery that nobody can excel them. There fore, God, the Almighty, has opened up all doors of abundance to them”. He continued: “Lovers of God do not wish for anything except the things which God wants.”

I had the desire to refer to some sections of Imam Sajjad’s distinguished and highly valuable remarks and statements. However any section of his speeches which I referred to in Behar, vol.78, Kashfol Qomme, second volume, A’alamol Din of Deylami, and Tohafol Oqul and Mohajjatol Beiza’, and Mostadrak Safineh, and the precious book called wesa’el, Khesal, by Sheikh Saduq and Tafsir Borhan and Tafsir Nurossaqalein and other books on narrations, I found out that narrating those heavenly statements with no description or interpretation would be of no use. This is because our readers will not get anything out of these sentences on their own. Then, I thought, I could describe the invocations of Sahifeh Sajjedieh and make use of Imam’s Statements there. This would be, I am sure, of more benefit to our readers. At the end of this topic, I have to readers. At the end of this topic, I have to refer to the story of Farzadaq, the poet, who in his confrontation with Hesham, the cruel man, revealed the heavenly personality of Imam.

The Forty sixth volume of Behar, narrates from twenty two famous sources that Hesham Ibn Abdol–Malik came to Mecca for pilgriinage. The crowd was so dense he could not touch the Stone. He stood on a high place, letting those wretched mercenaries go around him as if they went around great stone. At this time Zainol Abedin(s) arrived on the scene. When people saw him they gave him way to cross to get near the Stone. Somebody from Syria asked Hesham who he was. He said he did not know. Farzadaq shouted that he knew him. The Syrian asked “who is it?” Farzadaq wrote a beautiful elegy spontaneously in praise of Imam Sajjad on the spot. The content of this beautiful piece of poetry is reserved by Jami, the great Iranian poet.

Hesham become very angry over this praise on Imam Sajjad (s). And upon insulting Farzadaq, he imprisoned him at a place between Mecca and Medina and cut off his salary. Imam Sajjad (s), sent him twelve thousand Derhams to compensate for it and even apologized that it was not sufficient. The poet, being a greedless and free man, refused to accept it, saying: “I respect you a lot, and I believe in you. I wrote this poem out of my love for you, not for money”. But, Imam Sajjad (s) convinced him that he should receive the gift.

Molla Mohammad Taghi Majlessi, the writer of Behar, in the description of Man la Yahzor tells us a sweet story concerning this poem by Jami.

A person in one of Jami’s sessions said: “A woman saw Farzadaq, the poet, in her dream. She asked him about his condition. Farzadaq replied that God had forgiven him for the elegy that he had written”. Jami, them, said: “All human beings deserve to be forgiven by God because of this elegy”.

أَلْحَمْدُ للهِ الاوَّلِ بِلا أَوَّل كَانَ قَبْلَهُ، وَ الاخِر بِلاَ آخِر يَكُونُ بَعْدَهُ . الَّذِي قَصُرَتْ عَنْ رُؤْيَتِهِ أَبْصَارُ النَّاظِرِينَ، وَ عَجَزَتْ عَنْ نَعْتِهِ أَوهامُ اَلْوَاصِفِينَ . ابْتَدَعَ بِقُدْرَتِهِ الْخَلْقَ اَبتِدَاعَاً، وَ اخْتَرَعَهُمْ عَلَى مَشِيَّتِهِ اخترَاعاً، ثُمَّ سَلَكَ بِهِمْ طَرِيقَ إرَادَتِهِ، وَبَعَثَهُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ مَحَبَّتِهِ. لا يَمْلِكُونَ تَأخِيراً عَمَا قَدَّمَهُمْ إليْهِ، وَلا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ تَقَدُّماً إلَى مَا أَخَّرَهُمْ عَنْهُ، وَ جَعَلَ لِكُلِّ رُوْح مِنْهُمْ قُوتَاً مَعْلُوماً مَقْسُوماً مِنْ رِزْقِهِ لاَ يَنْقُصُ مَنْ زادَهُ نَاقِصٌ، وَلاَ يَزِيدُ مَنْ نَقَصَ منْهُمْ زَائِدٌ. ثُمَّ ضَرَبَ لَهُ فِي الْحَيَاةِ أَجَلاً مَوْقُوتاً، وَ نَصَبَ لَهُ أَمَداً مَحْدُوداً، يَتَخَطَّأُ إلَيهِ بِأَيَّامِ عُمُرِهِ، وَيَرْهَقُهُ بِأَعْوَامِ دَهْرِهِ، حَتَّى إذَا بَلَغَ أَقْصَى أَثَرِهِ، وَ اسْتَوْعَبَ حِسابَ عُمُرِهِ، قَبَضهُ إلَى ما نَدَبَهُ إلَيْهِ مِنْ مَوْفُورِ ثَوَابِهِ أَوْ مَحْذُورِ عِقَابِهِ، لِيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَساءُوا بِمَا عَمِلُوا، وَ يَجْزِىَ الَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا بِالْحُسْنَى عَدْلاً مِنْهُ تَقَدَّسَتْ أَسْمَآؤُهُ، وَتَظَاهَرَتْ ألاؤُهُ، لاَ يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْأَلُونَ. وَالْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي لَوْ حَبَسَ عَنْ عِبَادِهِ مَعْرِفَةَ حَمْدِهِ عَلَى مَا أَبْلاَهُمْ مِنْ مِنَنِهِ الْمُتَتَابِعَةِ وَأَسْبَغَ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ نِعَمِهِ الْمُتَظَاهِرَةِ لَتَصرَّفُوا فِي مِنَنِهِ فَلَمْ يَحْمَدُوهُ وَتَوَسَّعُوا فِي رِزْقِهِ فَلَمْ يَشْكُرُوهُ، وَلَوْ كَانُوا كَذلِكَ لَخَرَجُوا مِنْ حُدُودِ الانْسَانِيَّةِ إلَى حَدِّ الْبَهِيمِيَّةِ، فَكَـانُوا كَمَا وَصَفَ فِي مُحْكَم كِتَابِهِ : (إنْ هُمْ إلا كَالانْعَامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ سَبِيلا) وَالْحَمْدُ لله عَلَى مَا عَرَّفَنا مِنْ نَفْسِهِ وَأَلْهَمَنَا مِنْ شُكْرِهِ وَفَتَحَ لَنَا من أبوَابِ الْعِلْمِ بِرُبُوبِيّته وَدَلَّنَا عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الاِخْلاَصِ لَهُ فِي تَوْحِيدِهِ وَجَنَّبَنا مِنَ الالْحَادِ وَالشَّكِّ فِي أَمْرِهِ، حَمْداً نُعَمَّرُ بِهِ فِيمَنْ حَمِدَهُ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ ، وَنَسْبِقُ بِـهِ مَنْ سَبَقَ إلَى رِضَاهُ وَعَفْوِهِ حَمْداً يُضِيءُ لَنَا بِهِ ظُلُمَاتِ الْبَرْزَخِ وَيُسَهِّلُ عَلَيْنَا بِهِ سَبِيلَ الْمَبْعَثِ وَيُشَرِّفُ بِهِ مَنَازِلَنَا عِنْدَ مَوَاقِفِ الاشْهَادِ يَوْمَ تُجْزَى كُلُّ نَفْس بِمَا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لا يُظْلَمُونَ (يَوْمَ لاَ يُغْنِي مَوْلىً عَنْ مَوْلىً شَيْئاً وَلاَ هُمْ يُنْصَرُونَ)، حَمْداً يَرْتَفِعُ مِنَّا إلَى أَعْلَى عِلِّيِّينَ فِي كِتَاب مَرْقُوم يَشْهَدُهُ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ، حَمْداً تَقَرُّ بِهِ عُيُونُنَا إذَا بَرِقَت الابْصَارُ وَتَبْيَضُّ بِهِ وُجُوهُنَا إذَا اسْوَدَّتِ الابْشَارُ، حَمْداً نُعْتَقُ بِهِ مِنْ أَلِيمِ نَارِ اللهِ إلَى كَرِيمِ جِوَارِ اللهِ، حَمْداً نُزَاحِمُ بِهِ مَلاَئِكَتَهُ الْمُقَرَّبِينَ وَنُضَامُّ بِـهِ أَنْبِيآءَهُ الْمُـرْسَلِيْنَ فِي دَارِ الْمُقَامَةِ الَّتِي لا تَزُولُ وَمَحَلِّ كَرَامَتِهِ الَّتِي لاَ تَحُولُ ، وَالْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي اخْتَارَ لَنَا مَحَاسِنَ الْخَلْقِ ، وَأَجرى عَلَيْنَا طَيِّبَاتِ الرِّزْقِ وَجَعَلَ لَنَا الفَضِيلَةَ بِالْمَلَكَةِ عَلَى جَمِيعِ الْخَلْقِ، فَكُلُّ خَلِيقَتِهِ مُنْقَادَةٌ لَنَا بِقُدْرَتِهِ، وَصَآئِرَةٌ إلَى طَاعَتِنَا بِعِزَّتِهِ. وَالْحَمْدُ لله الَّذِي أَغْلَقَ عَنَّا بَابَ الْحَّاجَةِ إلاّ إلَيْهِ فَكَيْفَ نُطِيقُ حَمْدَهُ أَمْ مَتَى نُؤَدِّي شُكْرَهُ؟!، لا، مَتى؟ وَالْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي رَكَّبَ فِينَا آلاَتِ الْبَسْطِ، وَجَعَلَ لَنَا أدَوَاتِ الْقَبْضِ، وَمَتَّعَنا بِاَرْواحِ الْحَياةِ ، وَأثْبَتَ فِينَا جَوَارِحَ الاعْمَال ، وَغَذَّانَا بِطَيِّبَاتِ الرِّزْقِ ، وَأغْنانَا بِفَضْلِهِ ، وَأقْنانَا بِمَنِّهِ ، ثُمّ أَمَرَنَا لِيَخْتَبِرَ طاعَتَنَا، وَنَهَانَا لِيَبْتَلِيَ شُكْرَنَا فَخَالَفْنَا عَنْ طَرِيْقِ أمْرِهِ وَرَكِبْنا مُتُونَ زَجْرهِ فَلَم يَبْتَدِرْنا بِعُقُوبَتِهِ ، وَلَمْ يُعَاجِلْنَا بِنِقْمَتِهِ بَلْ تَانَّانا بِرَحْمَتِهِ تَكَرُّماً، وَانْتَظَرَ مُراجَعَتَنَا بِرَأفَتِهِ حِلْماً. وَالْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي دَلَّنَا عَلَى التَّوْبَةِ الَّتِي لَمْ نُفِدْهَا إلاّ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ، فَلَوْ لَمْ نَعْتَدِدْ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ إلاّ بِهَا لَقَدْ حَسُنَ بَلاؤُهُ عِنْدَنَا، وَ جَلَّ إحْسَانُهُ إلَيْنَا وَ جَسُمَ فَضْلُهُ عَلَيْنَا، فَمَا هكذا كَانَتْ سُنَّتُهُ فِي التَّوْبَةِ لِمَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَنَا لَقَدْ وَضَعَ عَنَّا مَا لا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ، وَلَمْ يُكَلِّفْنَا إلاّ وُسْعاً، وَ لَمْ يُجَشِّمْنَا إلاّ يُسْراً وَلَمْ يَدَعْ لاَحَـد مِنَّا حُجَّةً وَلاَ عُذْراً، فَالْهَالِكُ مِنَّا مَنْ هَلَكَ عَلَيْهِ وَ السَّعِيدُ مِنَّا مَنْ رَغِبَ إلَيْهِ . وَ الْحَمْد للهِ بِكُلِّ مَا حَمِدَهُ بِهِ أدْنَى مَلائِكَتِهِ إلَيْهِ وَ أَكْرَمُ خَلِيقَتِهِ عَلَيْهِ، وَأرْضَى حَامِدِيْهِ لَدَيْهِ، حَمْداً يَفْضُلُ سَآئِرَ الْحَمْدِ كَفَضْلِ رَبِّنا عَلَى جَمِيعِ خَلْقِهِ . ثُمَّ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ مَكَانَ كُلِّ نِعْمَة لَهُ عَلَيْنَا وَ عَلى جَمِيعِ عِبَادِهِ الْمَاضِينَ وَالْبَاقِينَ عَدَدَ مَا أَحَاطَ بِهِ عِلْمُهُ مِنْ جَمِيعِ الاشْيَآءِ، وَ مَكَانَ كُلِّ وَاحِدَة مِنْهَا عَدَدُهَا أَضْعافَاً مُضَاعَفَةً أَبَداً سَرْمَداً إلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ، حَمْداً لاَ مُنْتَهَى لِحَدِّهِ وَ لا حِسَابَ لِعَدَدِهِ وَ لاَ مَبْلَغَ لِغَايَتِهِ وَ لا انْقِطَاعَ لاَمَدِهِ، حَمْدَاً يَكُونُ وُصْلَةً إلَى طَاعَتِهِ وَعَفْوِهِ، وَسَبَباً إلَى رِضْوَانِهِ وَذَرِيعَةً إلَى مَغْفِرَتِهِ وَ طَرِيقاً إلَى جَنَّتِهِ، وَخَفِيْراً مِنْ نَقِمَتِهِ، وَ أَمْناً مِنْ غَضَبِهِ، وَظَهِيْراً عَلَى طَاعَتِهِ، وَ حَاجِزاً عَنْ مَعْصِيَتِهِ وَ عَوْناً عَلَى تَأدِيَةِ حَقِّهِ وَ وَظائِفِهِ، حَمْداً نَسْعَدُ بِهِ فِي السُّعَدَاءِ مِنْ أَوْلِيَآئِهِ وَنَصِيرُ بِهِ فِي نَظْمِ الشُّهَدَآءِ بِسُيُوفِ أَعْدَائِهِ إنَّهُ وَلِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ .

Sahifeh Sajjadien contains the most precious and useful invocations and supplications under fifty four titles.

Sahifeh has created these lively and beautiful works of art following the Holy Quran, and the other heavenly books revealed to the Prophets.

Sahifeh has given extra strength to the constructions of invocations and supplications already laid down by Prophets, God’s men, lovers, and Gnostics.

Not only does Sahifeh make zealous suppliants, sympathetic lovers and perplexed Gnostics out of men, it provides us with a complete course in highly Divine issues, Godly knowledge, principles, prospering rules and healthy programs.

An invocation is a truth which can be traced in Divine books, invocation books and in the collections of narrations.

An invocation is a truth which dominates over all particles of thing, elements and the creatures of this world. From this channel all beings are nourished both spiritually and physically.

If invocations did not exist, the life of the earth dwellers would be impossible. The very root of all creatures relies on invocations.

Invocation is the cause for the descent of all assets from the source of Benevolence and Abundance.

Some say: invocation can be regarded as the adoption of tasks for God and anybody who gets involved in this program has shown aggression towards God and it is considered as an act of insolence.

The same group of people contend that Allah is a sacred Being who is aware of all the internal and external needs of human beings and other creatures and He is able to carry out these on His own. He would not need us to tell Him what to do.

It seems this group of people are unaware of the commands issued in Quran, regarding invocation as a compulsory act:

وقالَ رَبُكُمْ ادعوني اسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ اِنّ الذينَ يَسْتكبِرونَ عن عبادتي سَيَدخُلُونَ جهنم دِاخرَين.

“And your Lord says: Call up on Me, I will answer you; surely those who are too proud for My service shall soon enter hell abased. 40: 60”

In this sacred verse, Allah has ordered invocation and has promised to answer it and has doomed any tyrant who refuses to get involved in invocations.

These people are not aware of the context of invocations, however. An invocation is not a command from an inferior to a superior; rather, an invocation is the request of a beggar from the Great Rich, from the Benevolent and the Merciful. This is not definitely against wisdom, logic or common sense.

Another group is of the belief that Allah has predetermined the fate of man and it is impossible to change this course of action. What ever He has decided for us to happen will occur and invocations are irrelevant and of no value.

We should, however, let these people know that the issue of invocations is not outside the frame of the predetermined fate. And the consequences and results of this positive and rational movement are registered on his fate.

In other word, most of the servant’s planning which are of benefit to him are related directly with invocations. It is then up to man to carry out God’s commands in asking God for the expansion of his spiritual and physical sustenance.

Didn’t all Prophets, men of God, lovers, and Gnostics spend their happiest moments of their sweet lives in supplications and invocations and didn’t they reach what was to their advantage both physically and spiritually?

Most of the factors of growth and perfection of the servants of God are dependent upon Allah’s will which will materialize only through invocations. That is why the issue of invocations is insisted upon in Islamic texts; and invocation is considered as a palfrey for the applicant to reach the table – cloth of God’s spiritual and physical assets. Thus, if anybody engages in invocations, supplications and prayers to ask for his needs, he will get most of his needs. If a servant of God shows doubt or indifference towards invocations and if he is too proud to engage himself in invocations, he will suffer greatly by being deprived of God’s graces.

It is strange that these skeptics believe in the cause and effect relations in the world, but are ignorant of the fact that invocations are among the most significant causes to let man reach his goals. Which part of this reasoning is in contradiction with fate, or Divine affairs or Allah’s planning for us?

Invocation is, in fact, the same as the pre-determined fate and is in harmony with God’s planning and administration. It is a firm principle, a Divine truth and fact. It is included in the framework of existence together with the principles of cause and effect and special conditions.

It is said in the Islamic narrations: the Merciful God loved the servant’s supplications, invocations and begging. When the suppliant makes his forehead touch the ground in obedience, when he sheds tears, the clouds of benevolence will move, and the doors of the Unknown treasures will open up to him with the key of invocations, sooner or later this beggar of God’s mercy will reach his goals.

Those who assume that mental ease, heart comfort and the remedy for problems could be earned through material means are at fault. Because man’s tens of thousands of years have shown this to be untrue. What, in fact, is the key to these hard problems is our connection with the origin of existence and our praying him.

Through his prayers towards the Great love, i. e., the wise, Just, kind, Beneficent, Almighty, Dear, and Delicate, man could overcome his anxieties, pains, and hardships.

The flashy things on which people in this world rely could not be considered as pivots for us. If one day these glittering articles stop to exist, what would the material–oriented man do? What is he going to rely on then?

The materialistic people have shown in history that when they are entangled in the abyss of despair, sorrow, fright, and absurdity, they have no way but to resort to mental diseases.

The flashy and ornamental aspects of life, if used in the obedience of Allah, will not create a problem; rather, they will serve us to get our satisfaction and ease of mind. If it were not for this, why are the Prophets, God’s men, and God lovers reported to have chanted the fallowing all their lives?

الهي رِضاً بقضائكَ، اَصْبراَ على بلائك تسليماَ لِامْرِكَ.

“O God! I am satisfied with the fate you have appointed for me; I am patient towards the disasters you have sent to me; and I am obedient toward your commands.”

The materialistic frame of life by itself and without spiritual aspects will result in nothing but mental disturbance, anxieties and worries. Man’s sciences have found ways to heal material wounds, but they are unable to produce anything to ease our mental and spiritual calamities. The medicines for our internal wounds can be found in God’s pharmacy. The Divine envoys keep the door of this pharmacy open to people where everybody may satisfy his spiritual needs.

The issues of faith and reliance on God and invocations, supplications, and prayers are so important that they could, even in the opinion of non–Islamic scholars, solve all our problems.

These scholars hold that the only means which could solve our mental problems is the belief in God and the Resurrection.

In fact, the factor of man’s victory over pains, and worries is the establishment of connection with the Great Love.

But the mental conditions of those who are away from this spiritual sphere and do not involve themselves in supplication and invocations and show pride in shunning prayers altogether, will suffer greatly.

William James, who is among pragmatic philosophers, explains the role of faith and the dangers of not having faith in the following words:

“Faith is among the powers through which man can survive and its complete lack equals man’s fall”

The above issues are referred to in the Holy Quran in the following manner:

وَمَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَكَأَنَّمَا خَرَّ مِنْ السَّمَاءِ فَتَخْطَفُهُ الطَّيْرُ أَوْ تَهْوِي بِهِ الرِّيحُ فِي مَكَانٍ سَحِيقٍ.

“And whoever associates others with Allah, it is as though he had fallen from on high, then the birds snatch him away or the wind carries him off to a far distant place. 22:31”

He who has left the sphere of monotheism, and has put the real love aside, and has disconnected with the Great Truth, and has shunned the spiritual world and has, in fact, deprived himself of reliable strongholds, has fallen from a high position. During this descent, the vultures will get hold of him between the earth and the sky or he will be at the mercy of hazardous tornados.

In the precious interpretation of Nemuneh under this verse, we will read:

“The word skyin the above verse refers to monotheism and the adoption of any god except Allah causes man to fall from this sky. It is natural for stars and moon and sun to shine in this sky.

Lucky is the person who is at least a shining star in this sky, if he can not be the sun or the moon. But if a man falls from this lofty place, he will face one of the following two situations: either, in the middle of the way, before he reaches the ground, he is captured by vultures; in other words, with losing the reliable stronghold of faith he falls prey to uncontrollable wishes or whims, each of which can destroy his life completely; or he will be carried away by a deadly torrent which takes him away, smashing him to pieces. This issue refers to Satan, of course.

Without doubt, one who falls from the sky loses his determination power and is headed towards destruction with unexpected speed, and finally vanishes.

Ali (s) in Hekmat 138 (Nahjolbalaqa) says:

وادْفعوا أمواج البلاءِ بالدعاء.

Let continuaus hardships be away through invocations”.

Now after one thousand and five hundred years, this wise statement shows its value when the world scientists claim that continuous emotionalism leads to metal sickness.

The clinical and experimental observations have shown that the repeated stimulation of emotions can lead to body impairment in prone persons.

Thus, supplication, invocation and prayers are significant factors which can prevent numerous diseases and are considered as strong medicines for mental disturbances.

Imam Zainol Abedin(s) spent fifty seven years of his precious life encountering disasters, hazards, hardships and pains. He observed the last two years of Ali’s government which was replete with the Saffein, and Nahravan wars and Bani Ommayeh’s numerous crimes. Then Imam Zainol Abedin(s) was caught among the innumerable problems during his uncle’s last ten years of life. Then he faced many calamities during his father’s last ten years of life. And then, after the Karbala Event and the captivity of his household members, he spent thirty five years in numerous hardships which Marvani’s cruel governors had created for him. But within those hard and alarming years due to his engagement in prayers, supplications and invocations he was immune against emotional turmoils and bodily ailments. He could defeat the waves of disasters with the help of his prayers at the dawn. Facing all those misfortunes, he used to tell God, “Please let me live longer and through your benevolence postpone my death”

The topic for the fifty four sections of Sahifeh Sajjadieh is invocation. Since the issue in the first invocation concerns the praise of Allah, and due to the fact that during history a group of people, for some unknown reasons, were negligent of God, it was deemed crucial to have a discussion on the recognition of God and to show that that realization of Allah is not a difficult thing, at all. We want also to mention the fact that all the teachers of monotheism and theology including prophets, Imams, God’s men, Gnostics, and philosophers have all concentrated their energies to correct man’s opinion on God, the Creator, and not to reason for the existence of God. During the entire history, you could not find anybody who has doubted the existence of the Creator. Rather, those who are counted as skeptics, have never questioned the existence of God. In fact, they would say the pivot of the world is the nature or accident. Now, if you ask these people if nature has determination or not, they would give you one of the two possible options. If they give positive answer, then they have accepted the existence of God. If they choose the other option, i.e., that nature lacks determination and wisdom, while every order in nature confirms the opposite, we could say they are just ignorant of the powers at work in the nature. In any case, as it is shown in the long and delicate narration reported by kafi, Imam Sadiq (s) says: those who are ignorant have to confess to the existence of God anyhow.

All scholars who have made researches on this issue, say: the recognition of God, the Almighty, is possible through three ways:

1) The nature;

2) Research on creatures;

3) Reasoning and rational thinking;

The feeling of theism (the recognition of God) and looking for God, like other instincts is innate in the nature of man. It is an undeniable truth.

Suppose we left a child in nature, away from social life and community. After a while, he will understand that he could not have created himself, became he did not previously exist and then came into being. It is not rational for something which did not exist to create it self. He would then generalize this thinking to other creatures such as the sun, moon, stars, trees, earth, vegetable and all other things that he can think about or touch.

He will then conclude that above all this delicate order in nature there should be a supreme power which he can not name, of course. He has to learn it later from God’s Prophets. This is man’s innate nature and Abraham’s monotheism, which exists in each heart.

The conclusion that I and every creature have a Creator does not include the Creator, however. This is because firstly the Creator is above all reasoning’s in creation and is the Creator of these reasonings.

Secondly, those nature attributes and the names of the sacred being which is the topic of the following verse:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ.

“Nothing is like a likeness of Him. 42:11”

Refer to He who is eternal and will eternally dominate the whole creation and will be described by the following verse of the Holy Quran:

قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ، اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ، لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ، وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ.

“Say: He, Allah, is one; Allah is He on whom all depend; He begets not, nor is He begotten; and none is like Him. 112:1-4”

Anyway, this very precious sense of theism and looking – for – God is laid by Allah in every heart. As Motahhari says: it is some sort of spiritual attraction between the heart center and human sensation, on one hand, and the creation center, i.e., the supreme Initiator and the Absolute perfection, on the other hand. It is like the attraction between things and masses. Man has been under this mysterious power without knowing it himself. It seems as if there were an “I” inside “I”.

The issue of innate nature has always been the focus of attention in both religion – based texts and in texts on human knowledge in general. These scholars unanimously contend that the same Creator who has taught the plants the obsorption of useful material from the ground, and has let birds know haw or when to migrate from the cold localities to warmer ones and has given the child the reflex to suck its mother’s breast when born, has laid the instinct of monotheism and God-loving deep inside human nature.

The topic is so clear that in the present century, which is the century of sins and opposition to truth carried out by the world imperialism, the scientists and psychologists and psychotherapists have officially announced that:

Man, behind his overt intelligence, has a hidden intelligence or instinct. They, thus, believe in the validity of the hidden or natural instinct.

These scholars recognize the ethical instinct, artistic instinct, scientific instinct, and the religious instinct of the human soul.

Regarding this topic, the knowledgeable Gnostics, the complete lovers have stated delicate topics relating instinct to the soul of man.

The point of departure between the philosophers and Gnostics starts here. Since Gnostics believe in natural love, they try to strengthen it and contend that the center of the supreme, divine, heartfelt and genuine feelings and sensations should be fortified and the obstacles on the way of its progress should be removed. In other words, they believe the heart should get purified and then through the strong palfrey of love we should fly to heaven. But the philosophers wish to arrive at their objectives through wisdom, thought, and reasoning’s. The Gnostic wants to fly; the philosopher wishes to ponder. The Gnostic wants to watch; the philosopher wishes to know.

Scientists like Carl, William James, Pascal the well–known mathematician, Bregson and, Jung, Freud’s student, all confess to the power and effects of nature and have accepted it as genuine sensation in human being. From a cursory look at their articles and books, it becomes clear that belief in truth, and concentration on the creation is a natural action. The Holy Quran brings this topic up so elegantly:

فَأَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفًا فِطْرَةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ.

“Then set your face upright for religion in the right state __ the nature made by Allah in which he has made men; there is no, altering of Allah’s creation; that is the right religion, but most people do not know. 30:30”

Imam Sajjad (s), as well, in the beginning sentences of the first invocation of Sahifeh Sajjadieh refers to the issue of nature:

ابْتدَعَ بقُدرَتهِ الخلق ابتدعاً، و اَخْتَرعَهُمْ على مَشيّتِهِ اختراعاً، ثمَ سَلَك بهم طريق ارادتِهِ، وبَعَثهمْ في سبيلِ مَحَبّتِهِ.

He created creatures through His power; and with His own determination dressed them the dress of existence and let them go as He wished and He enticed them towards His own love.

In the precious book called “Islam and man’s ideas”, we will read: without doubt, if we ask those believers in God what their strongest reason is for their belief, they will definitely refer to their “natural sensation” as the most reliable source of their conviction. The effects of this natural, internal sensation are so great that they changed the direction of those who have always been under the material or philosophers ideology towards Allah.

Here, we will present the confessions of some of the most staunch materialistic philosophers who strongly believe in blasphemy; they are called the repentant philosophers:

Reign, the famous German philosopher, who was one of the serious followers of Darwin, under the continuous pressure of his internal nature, wrote a book called “The world is created”, and has humbly confessed that there exists a Creator.

Rumen, another English philosopher, who first considered God as the result of material factors and who was a staunch follower of the foundation of materialism, was finally under the mysterious power of his internal nature and had to confess:

“All the scientific and philosophical foundations I have used to prove that the world is the result of unconscious matters is null and void. The world has a Creator as my internal nature forces me to admit and as the creation wisdom leads me to verify. The Creator is a fact.”

Michael Faradeh, the English philosopher and researcher of natural sciences, physics and chemistry, who believed the whole world as the result of accidental combination and did not believe in any Creator, and who spent all his life in research in physics and chemistry, on one of the days of the year 1867 when he was on his bed, suffering from illness, and was asked what theory he was thinking on then, he answered:

I thank God that I am not thinking on any theory now. I humbly worship God and sincerely confess before Him. Now I am thinking only on Him whose existence my instinct, internal nature and all scientific foundations attest to. I recognize my God and I am sure that He will pardon all my nonsenses, shortcomings and sins.

Since the inappropriate environmental factors, the wrong judgment of our wisdom, our thought, deviations, the aggression of books on blasphemy, the torrent of our lusts and instincts may all cover the beautiful features of internal, natural sensations and our instincts and deprive us of the divine agent called human nature, Islam has invited our external senses to identify and comprehend the world sensations and has asked our wisdom, as well to judiciously verify the foundations of existence so that through this way we may recognize the Great Love and remove the curtains of doubt over human nature.

Although tough and at times puzzling, reasoning is the safest way to recognize God.

The Holy Quran and the Islamic precious knowledge not only have not rejected reasoning as the feeble–minded individuals have erroneously assumed but also have encouraged this way of the recognition of God and have laid the groundwork on this kind of research.

The verses which are concerned with monotheism and the Resurrection, both those which are God’s own words and the ones which are the Prophet’s statements narrated by the Almighty God, sometimes refer to man’s nature, or attract our attention towards God’s works in the arena of creation. And sometimes they are pure reasoning to verify the existence of Allah and the issue of resurrection.

The reasonings and the discussions narrated in the best books on narrations concerning the issue of monotheism from the great Prophet and the Infallible ones include the method of reasoning.

I wished to refer to the different facets of reasoning as used in the Holy Quran and the Divine knowledge and in books on gnostism and philosophy. But for two valid reasons, I decided not to do this:

The first reason is that these forms of reasoning are dealt with in many books accessible to the public. For instance, you may refer to the following:

The Holy Qoran, Nahjolbalaqe, kafi principles, vol one, Beharol Anvar, volumes 3 and 4, Tabarssi Reasoning, Kefayatol Mowahedin: in this last source God’s verses and the knowledge of the Infallible ones are recorded.

The scientific books which deal with reasoning are: Avicenna’s Esharat, Mirdamad’s Qabsat, Molla Sadra’s Asfar and sublime knowledge, Shavahedol Robubieh, Arshieh, Khaje Tusi’s Description on Tajrid Description on Esharat, Feiz Kashani’s Osulol Ma’aref, Farabi’s Fosus, Molla Mehdi Naraqi’s Elama’ٍta Elahia, Ibn Torkeh’s Tamhidol Qava’ed, Molla Abdollah Zonuzi’s Lama’at Elahieyeh Haji Sabzevari’s the collection of treatises, Molla Na’ima Taleqani’s Aslel Osul, and other sources such as the five volumes of the principles of philosophy and the Method of Realism by the Allameh Tabatabaee with the footnotes by the great Islamic philosopher, Sheikh Morteza Motaheri.

The second reason why I did not mention all kinds of reasoning here in this book is that I am writing this book for the lay – man, for general public. I avoid referring to the complicated philosophical issues for fear that the reader might get bored and put the book aside completely and deprive himself of God’s blessings. The experts may read those technical books on their own.

The understanding of deductive reasoning for the recognition of God is difficult for layman, especially when the major, the minor or the intermediate is absent: look at the following:

يا منْ دلَّ على ذاته بذاته.

“O God who have referred to your existence through your existence”

وبكَ عرفتكَ و انتَ دللتني عليك.

I recognized you through you yourself and you led me to yourself.

و اَعْرِفوا الله تعالى بِالله.

And know Allah, the almighty, through Allah himself.

This kind of reasoning is hard for general people to grasp. And general people are not the followers of this kind of research. Rather, the revelation of monotheism in their heart is possible and easier through nature.

Akhund Molla Mohammad Na’ima Taleqani, the great Islamic researcher, one of the great teachers of Shiite Islamic centers in the twelfth century, and a great hero in philosophy, Gnosticism, logics, and narrations, in his book called Aslolosul, on page 103, in chapter 3 on the issue of Touhidol Wajib Ta’ala, Wa Ahadiyyata Wa Vahediyyeh, Concerning the use of reasoning for the recognition of Allah, says:

“Know that this high topic, i.e., the realization of monotheism and the understanding of God is the highest degree of perfection and the most sublime of goal of worshippers, and it is the desired objective for the thirsty souls for knowledge and the last wish of the well - wishers.

“But the comprehension of these sublime topics and high stages is only possible through the following factors:

Skill, habit, shrewd mind, special training, possessing the mental facts of the pious, being special among God – believers, observing Islamic codes at all times, holding the chord of sunnah, heavy self – disciplines, difficult trials, shinning worldly ornamentations, full attention towards God being free from layman’s customs, being clean from a filthy nature, the denial of bodily desires, the rooting out of satanic manners and through other means which God has provided for us.”

After these sentences, Akhund Molla Na’ima continues with the following words: “what, however, is said about this significant topic, is of no benefit for those who did not have the prerequisites; in fact, they were drawn far from the truth by being exposed to these topics. Thus, those students who started to listen to these reasoning’s without previous backgrounds were lost completely.”

We have to repeat once again that we did not refer to strong logical reasoning, although it is the best way through which we could recognize Allah, simply because our readers could resort to the other two ways available: i.e., through their nature or through attention to the creature of the great Creator.

O my Lord! O Creator, O God of the two worlds, O beloved of all lovers, O the objective of the knowers, if only the hands of the misled, and the slaves to their lusts, did not interfere in man’s life and if these dangerous thieves would let the inhabitants of the earth free during man’s history, your recognition would not have been so difficult, especially when they have put so many curtains between you and us. You have told us in the Holy Quran that you are very near to us, even nearer than our veins: you have, as well, said:

وَهُوَ مَعَكُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كُنْتُمْ.

“He is with you wherever you are. 57: 4”

وَلِكُلٍّ وِجْهَةٌ هُوَ مُوَلِّيهَا.

You have also said:

“And everyone has a direction to which he should turn. 2: 148”

O my Lord! let us be attracted by the attraction of your blessings. In order for us to know you, let us enjoy your benevolence. Enlighten our wisdom, heart, and soul with your lights. Let us dwell in the paradise of your knowledge and love. Please accept from me this description and interpretation which I want to offer with the help of the verses of Holy Quran, narrations, scholar’s words and the grosticism of the knowers. Please help this disabled and ignorant writer.

الحمد لله الاول بلا اول كان قبله و الاخر بلا آخر يكون بعده الذي قصرت عن رؤيته أبصار الناظرين و عجزت عن نعته أوهام الواصفين.

All praises are for the Sacred Being who possess all the attributes of perfection. His existence is free from all defects. He is the origin of every creature. There was no one before Him. He is the reference and Resurrection of the creation. There is nothing after Him. The eyes are unable to see Him and the thoughts of the describers are incapable in describing Him.

al hamdolellah (All praise is due to Him)

Hammd [حمد]: To praise the good attributes and it is optional. Madh [مدح]: To commend the good attributes; it is both optional and compulsory; Shokr [شكر]: To thank for His graces and favors.

Considering the difference among these three words and regarding the article {al} in front the word Alhamad [الحمد], we will realize that all praises are for that Sacred Being who is the Creator of all creatures and who is free to create. He is the beauty – creator, developer of all aspects of existence, and a guide to all objectives and inclinations. Anybody who praises some body else for his good work, is in fact indirectly praising Allah, since He is the Creator and anything good, and any proper adjective and good act is a drop of that Ocean, a reflect of that Light and a Ray from that Center.

In fact, by the use of the word Alhamdo lellah [الحمد لله] which we utter, and which is a comprehensive word we praise Allah.

The word “Alhamdo lellah” is a phrase filled whith light which is uttered by the lovers in the world, which is the first life and by the paradise dwellers, in the Hereafter, which is the second and eternal life.

Imam Sadiq (s) says: One of the mules of Imam Baqir (s), my father, was lost. He said: I will praise it if I find it. When the mule was found and Imam was satisfied, he put on his dress and staring at sky, he said الحمد لله, adding nothing to it. Then he said: this word includes all the praises. I may not add anything to it.

God has taught His servants to use this expression to worship and praise Him. If this training had not been done, all the tongues would have been dumb to utter anything.

In Tafsir Kabir, volume one, in the description of الحمد لله it is narrated from the Prophet (s):

اِنّهُ قال: اِذا أنْعَمَ اللهُ على عبدهِ نِعْمَهَ، فيقول العْبدُ: الحمدُ لله؛ فَيَقُولُ الله تعالى: انْظُُروا إلى عَبْدي أعطيتُه ما لا قدر لَهُ، فاعطاني ما لا قيمَةَ لَهُ.

When God bestows a favor and grace upon His servant and he says الحمد لله, God will say: look at my servant, I gave him a cheap thing but he gave Me as a gift something of utmost value.

The explanation for this excellent narration is the following: when God performs a favor towards us, it is not strange for Him; rather, He has done it out of His Generosity, such as to feed a hungry man, to dress a naked one, to give water to the thirsty one and other assets which are given us out of His Benevolence.

But when a servant of God says الحمد لله it means: any praise which is uttered anywhere belongs to God, and all the possible praise which are not even uttered belongs to God as well. In the expression الحمد لله there are all the praises done by earth and the skies dwellers and by the residents of the paradise.

But the word الحمد لله also includes all the praises which will be used to worship God by all men and other creatures for ever and ever.

There is a delicate point here to discuss. The assets and affluence given by God to us are finite, but the content of the expression الحمد لله is infinite.

It is clear that when a finite amount is deduced from infinite, the infinite will continue to be infinite. The content of this narration is in fact the following: it is as if God wanted to say: My servant, when you say الحمد لله for a favor by Me, what you have done is an eternal worship; and an eternal worship inevitably deserves an eternal range of favors. Thus the servant deserves an eternal prosperity. Therefore, any God – believer who utters the expression الحمد لله will deserve eternal prosperity.

Fakhr Razi writes in his Description: The expression الحمد لله is a noble one which should be used in its proper time and place. If you use it properly, you will get your objectives; but, if you don’t, you will not get what you want.

Sarri Saqati was asked: How should we praise Allah? He replied: It is thirty years since I have been repenting the use of الحمد لله out of its proper place.

People asked him: How? He replied: There was a horrible fire in Baqdad. All shops and houses were on fire. I was told my shop was immune from fire. When I heard this, I said الحمد لله . Then, when I thought about the content of this expression, I realized that I was happy for the immunity of my shop with no regards for people’s property which were completely destroyed. It is thirty tears since I have been asking for God’s forgiveness.

To praise God is carried out due to the greatness of the Creator. This action is done through your heart, your tongue, and your eyes, ears, and hands and feet.

What God wants from us is to hear correctly, to say the truth, to carry out good action with our hands, and to walk for God. These are among the divine actions of our limbs.

The right thing for our hearts to carry out is to have faith in God and to realize that God possesses all the attributes of perfection, beauty and magnanimity. Of course, to attain this, we will need great endeavors on our parts.

The right thing for our tongues to do is to utter through our tongues what our hearts feel deep inside concerning God’s attributes of benevolence and greatness and the expression الحمد لله is the most appropriate methods to confess to such a reality.

The right thing for our other limbs is that they should coordinate themselves with God’s wishes so that they could represent God’s attributes and sacred names. If you complete these three stages, you have been involved in the act of praising God for the infinite range of His blessings and favors.

Thus, all God’s believers are given a chance to thank and praise God and no excuse can be accepted in this regard.

God through getting our wisdom involved with all aspects of creation shows Himself free from all defects and short-comings and makes us realize that He is the King, the Sacred and the Wise.

يُسَبِّحُ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ الْمَلِكِ الْقُدُّوسِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَكِيمِ.

“Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth declares the glory Allah, the king, the Holy, the Mighty, the Wise. 62:1”

The Holy Quran emphasizes that man should realize God’s perfection and beauty through his creation; it is become the language of works and traces is more eloquent than the language of news.

If a thousand people say there is fire at a certain place, but one crazy one says “there is no fire”, due to the fool’s expression there might be some doubts and confusion in our belief. But if a person observes smoke, which is the sign of fire, and says “fire”, everybody believes him even though a thousand people say they can not observe any fire. Thus, we see that signs and traces can not be ignored. So, the creation as a whole can be taken as signs which indicate the existence of that great Being, that sacred Entity and that Great Wise: the same Dear Being who is wise and who has sent us the most virtuous being, the Prophet Mohammad (s) and the most precious thing, the Quran to be read by us and to be used for our education. By reading this Glorious trace of God we will discern God’s perfection, glamour, and beauty. The Great Prophet tries to change us through his trainings: تَخَلَّقُوا بأخْلاق اللهِ

“Equip yourself with Godly mannerism”

And having learned the book, we will get aquatinted with rightfulness, Islamically legal and illegal actions. Then the ground is set for theoretical and practical knowledge. Upon completing these high stages of growth and perfection, we may get at the stage where we could get involved in true worshipping and not in a superficial one. This is because the genuine worship is only possible for a believer if he possesses insight, truth, knowledge, love, faith and mannerism.

The sire of Gnostics, the head of the lovers, Imam Ali (s) has a lot of significant saying on Hamd praising God. Some sentences are given here as samples

اَلْحَمْدُ لله الَّذي جَعَلَ الْحَمْدَ عَلى عِبادِهِ مِنْ غَيْر حاجَهٍ مِنْهُ إلى حامِديهِ، وَطريقاً مِنْ طُرُق مِنْ الاعْتِرافِ بلاهُوتيَّتِهِ وَصَمَدانِيَّتِهِ ورَبّانِيَّتِهِ وَفرْدانِيَّتِهِ، وَسَبَباً إلَى الْمَزيدِ مِنْ رَحْمَتِهِ، وَمَحَجَّهً لِلطّالِبِ مِنْ فضْلِهِ؛ وَكَمَّنَ في إبْطان اللَّفْظِ حَقيقَهَ الاعْتِرافِ لَهُ بِاَنَّهُ الْمُنْعِمُ عَلى كُلِّ حَمْدٍ...

Praise be upon Allah, who gave the honor to his servants to engage in Hamd (praising God) without needing their praise. He Who put this word, which should be uttered from the very depth of one’s heart, for us to confess to His Great Position and kingdom. He Who put Hamd as a means for his abundance over his servant. He who put it as a light on His servants.

Imam Sadiq (s) has employed the following way of Hamd:

الحَمْدُ لله بمَحامِدِهِ كُلها عَلى نِعَمِهِ كُلها حَتى يَنْتهيَ الحَمْدَ اِلى ما يُحِبُّ ربّي وَيَرْضى.

Praise be upon Allah for all his abundance which He has given to us.

Imam Sadiq (s) narrates from his father: a Prophet among Prophets said to Allah:

الحَمْدُ لله كثيراً حمداً طيباً مُباركاً فيهِ كَما يَنْبَغي لِكَرَمَ وجْهكَ وعِزَّ جَلالِكَ.

Praise be upon Allah, a blessed praise of the form which fits His benevolence, glamour, and dignity.

God, then, revealed on him: Due to the rewards that this praise entailed, you have made a laborious job for the reward – registrars.

عَنْ عَلّي بْنِ الحُسَيْنِ عليها السلّام اِنّهُ قالَ: مَنْ قالَ: اَلحَمْد لله فقدْ ادَى شُكر كلَّ نعمَه لله عَزّوَجَل عَليْه.

Imam Sajjad (s) has said: anybody who utters (al hamdolellah) الحَمْدُ لله, he has in fact thanked Allah for all his abundance.

عَنْ النّبي صّلى الله عليه و آله قال: لا اِله اِلا الله نِصْفُ الميزان وَالحَمْدُ لله يَمْلأهُ.

The Allah’s Messenger said, “the expression لا اِله اِلا الله will satisfy half of our tasks towards Allah, but “الحَمْدُ لله” will complete our duties.”

In the above sentences the fact was stressed that Hamd in its genuine sense should be uttered by the suppliant’s heart, tongue and all his limbs, i.e., when the heart confesses to the creator and when the tongue utters the word الحَمْدُ لله, and when our limbs do not participate in sins then the conditions for the utterance of Hamd are met, or else using the word only through the tongue will not help since this word could be taught to some birds (such as parrots and minas) as well. In fact, Hamd consists of three facts: internal, by tongue and physical. This is the sense which is used in most precious narrations. You may pay attention to the following:

عَنْ ابْنِ نَباتَةَ قالَ: كُنْتُ أرْكَعُ عِنْدَ بابِ أميرِ المُؤمِنِينَ عَليه السلام وَأنا أدْعُو اللهَ، إذْ خَرَجَ أميرُ المُؤمِنِينَ عليه السلام فَقَالَ: يا أصْبَغُ، قُلْتُ: لَبَّيْكَ، قالَ: أيَّ شيئٍ كُنْتَ تَصْنَعُ؟ قُلْتُ: رَكَعْتُ وَأنَا أدْعُو، قالَ: اَفَلا أعَلِّمُكَ دُعَاءً سَمِعتُهُ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ صلّى الله عليه وآله؟ قُلْتُ: بَلى، قالَ: قُلْ: (اَلحَمْدُ للهِ عَلى ما كانَ، وَالحَمْدُ للهِ عَلى كُلِّ حالٍ). ثُمَّ ضَرَبَ بِيَدِهِ اليُمْنى عَلى مَنْكَبيَ الأيسَرِ وَقالَ: يا أصْبَغُ لَئِنْ ثَبَتَتْ قَدَمُكَ، وَتَمَّتْ وِلايتُكَ، وَانْبَسَطَتْ يّدُكَ، اللهُ أرحَمُ بِكَ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ!

Athbaq Ibn Nobata says: I was praying next to Imam Ali’s house when he came out of his house. He called me and asked what I was doing. I answered: I was engaged in worshipping. Imam Ali (s) then asked: Do you want me to teach you the invocation which I learned from the Prophet(s). I answered: yes, please.

الحَمْدُ لله عَلى ما كانَ وَ الحَمْدُ لله عَلى كُل حالٍ.

“Praise be upon Allah for all His abundance, and praise be upon Him at any moment”

Then he touched my left shoulder with his right hand, saying: If you are steady towards Allah, and if you wholeheartedly believe in His leadership, and if you are generous towards people as far as financial matters are the issue, the kind Allah will be kinder to you than yourself.

Senan Ibn Tarif says: I said to Imam Sadiq (s): “I fear to be dominated by negligence towards Allah when He has given us such an abundance” Imam asked for the reason. He gave it to me. Then I asked him for a thousand Derhams, and I received it. Then I begged Him to give me a servant. I received one, as well”.

Imam then asked me what words I offered upon receiving what I needed. I said I used الحمد لله (Praise is due to Allah).

Imam Sadiq (s), then, said: What you gave God was better than what you received from Him.

عن جعفر بن محمد عليهما السلام عن ابيه، عن جابر بن عبدالله، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله: “لو أنَّ الدنيا كلها لقمة واحدة فأكلها العبد المسلم ثم قال: الحمد لله لكان قوله ذلك خيراً له من الدنيا و ما فيها”.

Imam Sadiq (s) reports from Imam Baqir (s) who reported from Jabir Ibn Abdollah who narrates from the Prophet (s) who has said: If the whole world were a morsel and then a Moslem ate it and then uttered (الحمد لله) this statement of his would be better for him than the world and what it contained.

In senenteen verses from the Holy Quran, Allah has called Himself (حميد) [Hamid], i.e. praiseworthy: Baqarah 267: Hud 73; Ibrahim 1,8; Hajj 24,64; Luqman 12, 26; Saba 6; Fatir 15; Ha Mim 42; Shura 28; Hadid 24; Mumtahene 6; Taghabun 6; Buruj 8; and Nisa 131.

In the Holy Quran the word (الحمد لله) is used seventeen times: Anam 1; Araf 43; Ibrahim 39; Nahl 75; Bani-Israel 111; Kahf 1; Moaminun 28; Naml 15,59,93; Ankabut 63; Luqman 25; Saba 1; Fatir 1,34; and Zumar 29, 47.

The sacred sentence (الحمدُ للهِ رَبِّ العْالَمِينَ) is used in six verses from the Holy Quran: Fateha 2; Anam 45; Yunus 10; Saffat 182; Zumar 75; and Moamin [Qafir] 65.

The explanation of each verse of the above verses needs philosophical, and Gnostic expertise which this poor, needy and ignorant writer lacks. It is better for you to refer to the relevant books and sources so that you may equip yourself with the light contained in these verses and reach to the stages of Gnosticism and true love.

In the interpretation of Kashfol Asrar, in the first volume, in the third edition for the translation of Hamd, we will read:

“The expression (الحمدُ للهِ) is to praise Allah, the Abundance Giver, the Unique, One who is available without research, and is recognizable without being watched, and the One who is loved without being seen. He is Almighty; He is immune of Annihilation; He is Almighty; He is ascribed by the attributes Glorious, the Beautiful; He observed the worshippers’ weakness in the recognition of Him; and knew that however hard the believers tried, they would never reach it; and however hard they tried, they would not recognize Him. And the Holy Quran witnessed to the worshippers’ inabilities:

وَ ما قَدَرُوا اللهَ حَقَّ قَدرِهِ.

“And they have not honored Allah with the honor that is due to Him” [The Companies 67].

Allah praised Himself and taught His servants how to praise Him or else who would be able to use the expression الحمد لله.

Be aware that Hamd [Praise on Allah] has two phases: One is due when you confront the asset; the other is due to the Giver. What is due when you see the asset is for you to thank Him upon receiving it to-day and let you enter the paradise tomorrow. The Prophet (s) has said regarding this:

اَوَّلُ من يُدعى اِلى الجَنَّة الحَمَّادُون للهِ على كُلِّ حالٍ.

“The first who will enter the paradise are those whose job it was to praise Allah”

This is the case of those who praise Allah for His abundance. But there are those who praise Allah irrespective of the assets they receive or not: They would say: “O love! We have not come here to see the world only”.

الأوَّلُ بِلا أوَّلٍ قبلَهُ، و الآخِرُ بِلا آخِرَ يَكُونُ بَعْدَهُ.

The words (اول) [The first], and (آخر) [The last] in this great invocation which is as wavy and stormy as the ocean, are taken from the third verse of the sacred surah Hadid from the Holy Quran and are, in fact, meaningful but short interpretations of that verse.

As it is evident from the famous narrations available to us, every verse of the Holy Quran, which has seventy deep structures and every deep structure has seventy deep structures of its own, was revealed to the clean heart of the Prophet (s) and then was transferred to the Infallible (s); regarding this topic, there is a description of the forty second invocation of Shifeh Sajjadieh in the coming pages.

The Infallible ones (s) who possessed the first and last Divine knowledge, and who were complete human beings and each had at their disposal a stormy ocean of earthly and heavenly knowledge, started to describe the verses of the Quran through their invocations, narrations, good manners and holy actions and left a complete and all-inclusive school behind which could satisfy any believer’s questions on the worldly affairs and those of the Hereafter.

In the holy Surah of Hadid [The Iron], the content of the verses of which is marvelous, and intoxicating, and the issues of which are heart stimulants and spirit polishers and is the builder of the world Here and then, we will read:

هُوَ الأوَّلُ و الآخِرُ و الظاهِرُ و الباِطنُ وَ هوَ بكلِّ شيئ عليم.

“He is the First and the last and the Ascendant over all and the Knower of the hidden things, and He is Cognizant of all things. 57:3”

To describe the words “اول و آخر”, the first and the last, I will present the readers the results of our study of the verses of the Quran, invocations, narrations, the discussions of great Divine scholars and God lovers:

Before delving into the matter, let me discuss on two issues: one is time, the other one is place. Time is a phenomenon which came into being with the first creature. It is nothing except the movement of power into action, the change of a truth into truer; and a progression which has an end to it.

Place is location and a container, in which all elements rest or from which they change place. The two words “the first”, and “the last” are beyond the concepts of time and place.

The first and the last, like the expressions “Ascendent over all” and “the Knower of the hidden things”, and like all other attributes of Allah refer to the Being of Allah, the Being which contains all features of perfection. In fact, these attributes are the same as the Being Himself. In Allah the being is the Attributes and the Attributes are the same as the Being.

The attribute of each thing is different from its other attributes. For instance, the attribute knowledgeable is different from a person’s other attributes such as “strong”, “Just”, or “generous”. But in Allah, the Almighty, there exists only unity. Regarding this issue, Imam Ali (s) says:

وَكَمالُ الاخلاصِ لَهُ نَفيُ الصِفاتِ عَنهُ.

“To show perfect sincerity towards Him is to negate all his other extra attributes”

To explain more, Allah’s attributes are not like the adjectives given to things; i.e., where adjectives are different from the things described. Allah’s Being is the first, the last, Cognizant, Wise, Hearer, Seer, Witness, Creator, Giver, and … all of which refer to the Unique truth.

The expression نَفيُ الصِّفاتِ عَنهُ means not to separate Allah’s Attributes from His Being. It is because there the adjectives and “things described” do not exist separately and side by side, because in Allah each attribute is Allah Himself, not an added adjective.

Allah is the First, but not the first that we imagine; He is the Last, but not the last which we conceive. The states of being First and Last are not bound by Time and Place and by other factors which are used in relation with other creatures. He is the First; it means He is the Origin of all works, hidden or apparent. He is the Goal of all hidden or apparent things. While he is the First, He is eternal; He is the Last; it means He is perpetual; not the first which has an origin, nor the last which rests on an end.

Somebody asked Imam Sadiq (s) the meaning of the holy verse: هُوَ الأوَّلُ و الآخِرُ, he answered:

الأوَّلُ لا عَن أوّل قَبْلَهُ، ولا عَنْ بَدءٍ سَبَقَهُ و آخِرٌ لا عَنْ نِِهايَةٍ كَما يُعقَلُ مِن صِفاتِ المَخْلُوقينَ، وَ لكِن قَديمٌ أوَّلٌ وآخِرٌ لَم يَزَل وَ لا يَزالُ بِلا بَدءٍ وَ لا نِهايَةٍ، لا يَقَعُ عَلَيهِ الحُدُوثُ، وَ لا يَحولُ مِن حالٍ إلى حالٍ، خالِقُ كُلِّ شَئٍ.

He is the First, not from a first prior to Himself and not from a precedent before Him. He is the Last, not from any end, as assumed in the case of creatures. He is the First, the Last, without any reference to any beginning or end. There is no place there for changing from one state into another. He is the Creator of all things.

The Prophet (s) used to say to Him:

اللّهُمَّ اَنتَ الأوَّلُ فَلَيسَ قَبْلَكَ شَيئٌ وَ اَنتَ الآخِرُ فَلَيسَ بَعْدَكَ شَيئٌ.

O God, you are the First prior to whom there was nothing; and you are the Last after whom nothing exists.

Imam Ali (s), the sire of believers, has said:

لَيسَ لِأوَّليّتِهِ ابْتداءٌ وَلا لِأزَلِيّتِهِ اِنقِضاءٌ هُوَ الأوّلُ لَمْ يَزَل و البَاقي بِلا اَجَلٍٍ.

For His being First, there is no first; and for His being Last, there is no end, either. He is the First who has always been and is an Eternal for Whom there is no ene.

Imam Mojtaba (s) has said:

اَلحَمْدُ للهِ الّذي لَمْ يَكُن فيهِ أوّلٌ مَعْلُومٌ ولا آخِرٌ مُتَناهٍ.

Praise be upon the Being who has always been. He is the one for Whom there is no end, he is Everlasting. Our wisdom may not understand Him. Imam Ali (s) says in the first sermon of Nahjolbalaqa, which is a miracle by itself:

“Pious men when sincerely confessed to the Allah’s uniqueness, will see Him so clean that He will not need any attribute.

Never will He be attributed by any attribute; this is because when we describe, we think the adjectives with which the thing is described are different identities.

Thus, in describing Allah, it seems as though He had an associate; such an individual is far from reality, however.

Allah is a Being to whom non – existence will not apply. There is no beginning for His existence.

He is the factory for the warm life, but He will not receive any light or heat except from the Eternal Determination and the Power of Perpetuality”.

I do not think that without the necessary requirements, to which we have already referred, an understanding of the science of the unknown world, two significant factors of which are monotheism and the recognition of Allah, would be feasible.

To reach the Divine truths, especially to grasp the depth of the supreme Divine concepts above all, an understanding of Allah’s names and attributes, would be impossible without requiring the plans which believers have raised in their essays. Up to the point when the obstacles are not removed from their hearts and souls, Individuals would not succeed in observing the Love’s beauty.

Many people of the world, even Moslems, are fond of the non – sense of this world: they spend most of their time satisfying their lusts and applying to their homes, shops, wealth, eating, and sleeping. They are exchanging their dear life with some schemes which are of no use to them. They would not go after truth; and even if they went after truths, since they could not enjoy it, they would become tired and would quit the endeavor. This all happens because some obstacles, either financial, ethical or practical, have engulfed their hearts and souls. This is the case not only of some scholars, but of general public. This kind of people can not reach the sublime position since when they gather wealth, they wish to become Qarun, Firon (pharaoh), and Bala’am.

The writer of Asol Osul, who is among the well – known Gnostics and great philosophers of Islam, says at the end of his precious book:

“It is compulsory for every believer to research for the knowledge of the nunknown.

This kind of knowledge is used to equip the inner life with virtues and purify it against evils. The requirements for this movement, of course are being familiar with the fundamentals and the practical laws of Islam and the cleanliness of all limbs against the Islamic forbidden affairs”.

The basis of this knowledge is to obtain ethics, virtues and features from the news and narrations and the life patterns of the Infallible ones (s). Although wisdom is an important factor in obtaining Islamic knowledge, it can not be the only factor. In order to succeed, we should enlighten our wisdom with the light of the Infallible ones, since in their methods no errors may enter. For this purpose, you may refer to the chapter on Faith and blasphemy of the precious book called kafi since there we might find all that is good and all that is bad.

The other bases for this knowledge are the legitimate self – discipline (ascetism), and the worshipping God at the dawn and dusk.

Only through these conditions does the Gnostic attain the lofty positions and avoids the degenerating ones. Under such circumstances does he come near to the Great love. He loses his interest in the worldly possessions, concentrating on the kingdom of Heaven, and employing his wisdom for the preparation for the other world, rather than wasting it here.

Such a man loses his interest in the debased and mean matters of this world.

With his endeavors he will get rid of the wishes and whim, paying attention to the kingdom of Heaven.

He humbly asks the Almighty Allah to open up to him all His doors of blessings and abundance and to light his heart with special light of guidance so that he could observe the signs of Allah’s magnanimity.

After these requirements, the Gnostic will arrive at this blessed discovery and under Allah’s guidance he will discover wisdom, then he discovers his heart and later he discovers his spirit and soul. At this position, he is then ready to grasp the content of Allah’s Names and Attributes and to watch the Great Beauty. At this Juncture, he will understand the Quran, narrations and the Islamic knowledge and will get to the Great truth which is the desired goal for every lover and gnostic.

الّذي قَصُرَت عَنْ رُؤيَتِهِ اَبصْارُ النّاظِرين، وَ عَجَزَتْ عَنْ نَعْتِهِ اَوْهامُ الوَاصِفِينَ.

“The sacred Being whom our ordinary eyes can not see and the describer’s thoughts and ideas are unable to describe”.

By “Sight” we mean encountering objects under specific conditions.

What are visible are the things and elements which are delimited by time, place and other physical properties. When conditions are absent, vision will become non-existent.

It is clear to every body that our limbs and body organs are limited in their functions. Our bodily and spiritual strength is limited, so is our power range of hearing, sight and wisdom.

Our sighet is so limited that we may not see many material beings.

Our spirits, Jinns, angels, air pain, neutron, electron, some microbes and viruses are not visible to us, at all.

The Sacred Being of Allah, which is not similar to anything in this world, is beyond our power to see or observe.

Thus, our eyes are limited and finite, and the Being of Allah is infinite; therefore, we may not observe Him directly.

Abdollah Senan narrates from Imam Sadiq (s):

Allah is Great and High – ranking. Allah’s servants are incapable to describe Him and may not observe Him. He is Delicate and Knowing. You may not describe him through quality, place and time. How could I quantitatively describe Him since He made the quantity what it is. I recognized quality through His giving quality to what possesses quality. How could I describe Him with place terms when He created the concept of place; and I recognized place because He gave me the concept. He is both in and out of things. Eyes may never see Him, but He sees our eyes. There is no god except Him; He is the Mighty, the Wise, the Knowing.

Some of the Sunni scholars have misunderstood some of the verses of the Holy Quran and have presented some narrations dealing with the watching of God in the other world. But these narrations are fake.

They contend that it is possible for us at the Doomsday to see Allah directly. But the Infallible Ones (s), who are our salvage ship left from the time of the Prophet (s), contend that this would be impossible. In order to stand firm, they used the verses from the Quran and negated those narrations.

هُوَ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ مِنْهُ آيَاتٌ مُحْكَمَاتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ وَأُخَرُ مُتَشَابِهَاتٌ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ مَا تَشَابَهَ مِنْهُ ابْتِغَاءَ الْفِتْنَةِ وَابْتِغَاءَ تَأْوِيلِهِ وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَالرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِنْ عِنْدِ رَبِّنَا وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّا أُوْلُوا الْأَلْبَابِ.

“He it is who has revealed the Book to you; some of its verses are decisive, they are the basis of the Book, and others are allegorical; then as for those in whose hearts there is perversity, they follow the part of it which is allegorical, seeking to mislead, and seeking to give it (their own) interpretation, but none knows its interpretation except Allah, and those who are firmly rooted in knowledge say: we believe in it, it is all from our Lord; and none do mind except those having understanding.( 3:7)

The following verses are referred to as the decisive ones:

يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ.

“The Hand of Allah is above their hands. 48:10”

الرَّحْمَانُ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ اسْتَوَى.

The Beneficent God is firm in power. 20:5”

إِلَى رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ.

“Looking to their Lord. 75:23”

وَجَاءَ رَبُّكَ.

“And your Lord comes.89:22”

إِنَّهُمْ مُلَاقُو رَبِّهِمْ.

“Surely they shall meet their Lord.11:29”

The above verses and other similar ones in the Holy Quran have some interpretations which are in harmony with the decisive concepts. This kind of interpretation may only be carried out by the genuine scholars. And these scholars are in reality the prophet (s) and the Infallible Ones(s).

The magnificent Nurol Thaqalein, in volume one, pages 260-265 deals with twenty five narrations, all of which contend that by genuine scholars is meant the Prophet (s) and the Infallible Ones(s). Borhan in its first volume, and Alamizan in its third volume, page 69 deal with this delicate issue:

Imam Ali (s) has said in Nahjolbalaqa:

أيْنَ الّذينَ زَعَمُوا أنَّهُمُ الرّاسِخُونَ في العِلمِ دُونَنا كِذْباً عَلَيْنا، أنْ رَفَعَنَا اللهُ وَ وَضَعَهُم، وَ أعْطانا وَ حَرَمَهُم، وَ أدْخَلَنا وَ أخْرَجَهُمْ ...

“Where are those who deceptively consider themselves like us the decisive ones in science and knowledge. These are the wretched ones who have transgressed over our rights. It is God who made our scientific positions lofty and their positions mean and low. It was Allah Who gave us from His knowledge reserves and deprived them of such blessings. It was He who let us enter His secrets, but rejected them”.

Thus, those scholars from sunni sect who rely on the surface of some verses of the Holy Quran and on some narrations and claim that they will see God either here or in the Here after, are in error and their claims are in contradiction with the decisive verses of the Holy Quran which are the source for the interpretation of the allegorical ones, and with the interpretations of the Prophet (s) and the Infallible Ones (s).

If our appearance is equipped with Shariah and our inner self is lighted with the light of cognizance, and good mannerism and with complete faith, the eyes of our hearts are ready to see the truth and every heart, proportional with its capacity, may observe Allah’s Glamour, Glory, Beauty, and Magnanimity.

Another interpretation for meeting and seeing Allah is conviction. This means man could reach such a lofty place as the doors of doubt are closed to him and his heart attains such a degree of perfection as to make it possible for man’s eyes to see the secrets beyond the things.

Regarding this, let us read two narrations which Saduq narrates in his great book called Touhid.

عَنْ عَبْدِاللهِ بنِ سِنان، عَنْ أبيه، قالَ: حَضَرتُ آبا جَعْفَرٍ عليه السلام فَدَخَلَ عَلَيهِ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الخَوارجِ فَقَالَ لَهُ: يَا أبا جَعْفَر أيَّ شيئٍ تَعْبُدُ؟ قالَ: الله، قاَلَ: رَأيْتَهُ؟ قَالَ: لَمْ تَرَهْ العُيُونُ بِمُشاهَدَةِ العَيانِ، وَ لكِن رَأتْهُ القُلُوبُ بِِحَقائِقِ الإيمانِ، لا يُعْرَفُ بِالقِياسِ، وَلا يُدْرَكُ بِالحَواسِّ، وَلا يُشَبَّهُ بِالنَّاسِ، مَوْصُوفٌ بِالآياتِ، مَعْرُوفٌ بَالعَلاماتِ، لا يَجُورُ في حُكْمِهِ، ذلِكَ اللهُ لا إلهَ إلا هُوَ. قالَ: فَخَرَجَ الرَّجُلُ وَ هوَ يَقُولُ: اللهُ أعلَمُ حَيْثًُ يَجْعَلُ رِسالَتَهُ.

Abdollah Ibn Senan narrates from his father: I went to see Imam Baqir (s). A man from Khavarej came to that Imam and asked him: what are you worshipping? Imam Baqir (s) replied: Allah. He asked Imam “have you seen Him?” Imam answered: the head’s eyes may not see Him. Seeing Him is only possible through one’s heart, the heart which is equipped with religion facts. You may not recognize Him through a comparison with other creatures. He is to be recognized only through His signs. The signs which are spread everywhere and are observable in what is called collectively as creation. He is not hejemonistic in His domination. He is unique. When the Khareji was leaving Imam’s home, he was reciting the following verse:

اللهُ أعلَمُ حَيثُ يَجْعَلُ رِسَالَتَهُ.

“Allah best knows where He places His message. 16:124

عَن أبي عَبْدِالله عَلَيهِ السَّلام قَالَ: جاءَ حِبْرُ إلى أميرِ المُؤمِنينَ عليه السّلامُ فَقالَ: يا أميرَ المُؤمِنينَ هَلْ رَأيتَ رَبَّكَ حِينَ عَبَدْتَهُ؟ فَقالَ: وَيْلَكَ مَا كُنْتُ أعْبُدُ رَبّاً لَمْ أرَهُ. قالَ: وَكَيفَ رَأيْتَهُ؟ قالَ: وَيلَكَ لا تُدْرِكُهُ العُيُونُ في مُشاهَدَةِ الابْصَارِ، وَلكِنْ رَاتْهُ الْقُلُوبْ بِحَقايقِ الإيمانِ.

Imam Sadiq (s) has said, one of the Jewish scholars asked Imam Ali (s) whether he had seen his God at his prayers. Imam Ali (s) replied: Woe to you. I did not worship a God whom I could not see. He asked Imam Ali (s): How did you see Him? Imam Ali (s) answered: what do you think? God may not be seen through the head’s eyes. It is the clean heart which, with the power of his faith, could observe that Sacred Being.

There is a delicate point we should consider here: Every heart has a special capacity to appreciate religious facts. When the worshipper asks Allah for more, his request will not be answered. If it were answered, it would destroy the suppliant. This fact is shown in the verse 143 of the sacred Surah Araf [The Elevated Places]. Regarding this, there is an interpretation supplied by the interpreter of Almizan:

وَلَمَّا جَاءَ مُوسَى لِمِيقَاتِنَا وَكَلَّمَهُ رَبُّهُ قَالَ رَبِّ أَرِنِي أَنظُرْ إِلَيْكَ قَالَ لَنْ تَرَانِي وَلَكِنْ انظُرْ إِلَى الْجَبَلِ فَإِنْ اسْتَقَرَّ مَكَانَهُ فَسَوْفَ تَرَانِي فَلَمَّا تَجَلَّى رَبُّهُ لِلْجَبَلِ جَعَلَهُ دَكًّا وَخَرَّ مُوسَى صَعِقًا فَلَمَّا أَفَاقَ قَالَ سُبْحَانَكَ تُبْتُ إِلَيْكَ وَأَنَا أَوَّلُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ.

“And when Musa came at Our appointed time and his Lord spoke to him, he said: My Lord! Show me (Thyself), so that I may look upon Thee. He replied: you can not bear to see Me, but look at the mountain, if it remains firm in its place, then will you see Me; but when his Lord manifested His Glory to the mountain He made it crumble and Musa fell down in swoon; then when he recovered, he said: Glory be to Thee, I turn to Thee, and I am the first of the believers.”

In summary, the act which we call seeing is a natural phenomenon and needs a material substance to be seen. But what we learn from the Holy Quran is that no creature has any similarity to Allah, the Almighty; no Time or Place may contain Him. And no from of Him may be observed.

Thus the objective of Musa Ibn Imran was not really to see Allah, because such a request was not becoming of him, who was one of the great five prophets. This request that Allah who is free from time and place should show Himself to man is more of a joke than reality.

Wherever Allah talks about Him being seen and observed, there are mentioned certain conditions. For instance, in the verse:

أَوَلَمْ يَكْفِ بِرَبِّكَ أَنَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدٌ؟ أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ فِي مِرْيَةٍ مِنْ لِقَاءِ رَبِّهِمْ أَلَا إِنَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُحِيطٌ.

“Is it not sufficient as regards your Lord that He is a witness over all things? Now surely they are in doubt as to the meeting of their Lord; now surely He encompasses all things, ( 41:53-54) we will observe such conditions.

Prior to the confirmation of the meeting with God, He has reasoned that Allah is everywhere and His presence does not rely on specific Time or Place or Direction. He is present everywhere and He encompasses all things.

This is the true meaning of meeting with God, and not seeing him through ordinary eyes and through limited Time and Place.

What Allah has confirmed in the Holy Quran concerning meeting with Him is not to be taken as ordinary observing with one’s eyes; rather what is meant is through one’s conscience and heart without our eyes being involved. Man could easily conceive God through his heart. If he is not able to conceive Him the reason might be that he is too much involved in the material things. But this knowing of God will never vanish in man. Nowhere in Quran is there any mention of the disappearance of this knowledge. Everywhere in the Quran this ignorance is interpreted as “negligence”.

Of course, as it is understood from the Holy Quran, this knowledge which is interpreted as meeting with Allah, is only for true believers. As the Holy Quran says:

وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَاضِرَةٌ إِلَى رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ.

“Some faces on that day shall be bright, looking to their Lord. 75:22-23”

The Resurrection Day is the place and time of such meeting and it will not take place in this world in which man has to satisfy his material needs.

This world is the place where we may set the stage to meet with Allah and to get to know the knowledge to comprehend His verses.

Thus, Moses (s) in his sentence:

رَبِّ أَرِنِي أَنظُرْ إِلَيْكَ.

“My Lord! Show me Thyself so that I may look upon Thee”

has, in reality, asked Allah to provide him with the sufficient knowledge to be able to see Him mentally. Allah had previously given Moses hypothetical knowledge through which he could delve into Allah’s signs.

Furthermore, he was appointed to the position of prophethood by Allah. Moses wished to have the knowledge to know Him better.

Naturally, meeting with God with the meaning intended and elaborated in the above lines, is confirmed in several places of the Holy Quran. And its negation as used in لَنْ تَرانِي “You can not bear to see Me” refers to this world only. It simply means so far as man is primarily concerned with his material needs, he will never attain such knowledge of his God. This meeting would only be possible when man dies and disconnects himself from this world. God, in the above verse, tells Moses that he is unable to meet with Him in this world through material eyes. He should first die, then he would get that knowledge of seeing Allah.

Thus, the sentence: وَلَكِنْ انظُرْ إِلَى الْجَبَلِ “But look at the mountain,” is not to be taken as the negation of meeting with Allah; rather, Allah wants to show Moses that he has not the power to observe God in the usual sense of the word. God’s manifestation to Moses would disintegrate Moses on the spot.

To describe anything, we have to conceive the truth and a concept of that thing. In the case of God, we may refer to His signs and creatures.

The issue of Allah’s names and attributes is a puzzle for earth - dwellers. If we wish to describe Allah we should say: I will describe you as you described yourself. And this description is the result of begging from Him. We have to describe Him with the terminology that He has employed to describe Himself. When we arrive at the other world, then we will be honored to meet with Him.

When we study the descriptions made by the describers and the Islamic knowledge which are recorded in precious books, and then compare this knowledge with the Holy Quran, we will get the point which Imam Sajjad (s) has referred to in the sentence:

عَجَزَت عَنْ نَعْتِهِ اَوْهامُ الواصِفينَ.

The imagination of scholars, philosophers, lovers, and those whose hearts are the base for your love, is unable to describe you. How could a poor, weak, limited entity like us describe the infinite. The best description of God is what he has described Himself.

If anybody wishes to recognize Him, he should refer to the Holy Quran and the invocations from the Infallible Ones (s) and spend years of research and get himself involved in hard endeavors and avoid doing unlawful acts and observe the principles of the faith.

However, this inability of the describers should not hinder us from thinking deeply on the issue of monotheism. They have not been successful to describe God properly, but this is not a valid excuse for us not to put forward our best trial. Such a program is rejected in the Holy Quran. In the introduction to the fifth volume of Realism, Motahhari, the distinguished philosopher, writes, “They say: According to the Holy Quran the only way to recognize God is to study the nature with our senses. No doubt, the Holy Quran invites us to do so, but does Quran consider the study of nature enough by itself to solve all other problems which it has raised?”

The following problems are raised in the Holy Quran:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ.

“There is nothing like Him. 42:11”

وَلِلَّهِ الْمَثَلُ الْأَعْلَى.

“And Allah is the loftiest attribute. 16: 60”

وَلِلَّهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى.

“And Allah’s are the best names. 7:180”

الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَيْمِنُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ.

“The king, the Holy, the Quiver of peace the Granter of security the Guardian over all, the Almighty the supreme, the possessor of every greatness. 59:23”

فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ.

“[Allah’s is the East and the west], therefore, wither you turn, thither is Allah’s purpose. 2: 115”

وَهُوَ مَعَكُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كُنْتُمْ.

“And He is with you wherever you are. 57:4”

These are problems concerning the other side of our borders. How is it possible to know these issues through the study of nature. The tudy of nature will definitely familiarize us with the Might, Power and the Knowledge of the Creator, and permits us to know that He is aware of everything going around us. But the Holy Quran expects more from us: we should know, as well, that He is unexceptionally aware of every thing. How would it be possible for a finite being to know about the infinite?

The truth is that the study of nature leads us up to the border of super–natural. The study of nature will reveal to us that the nature is controlled or guided by the conscious Power and Might. But has this Power come from anywhere? Is it Eternal? Is it single or plural? Does it have all the attributes of perfection? Is it finite or infinite? Is it Holy and without fault? Do we meet with Him anywhere we go? Is He First and the Last? And the like…

The answers to these questions which are at issue in the Holy Quran could not be dealt with in the study of the nature. Thus, we come to the conclusion that man could never comprehend these problems and he has to believe blindly. Or if there is a way, it is not attainable through the study of nature, anyhow.

But we should be aware of the fact that all the above issues are indoctrinated to us by the Holy Quran as a series of lessons. And the study of nature is not enough by itself. Rather, there should be another way to know the truth which is confirmed by the Holy Quran.

That way, which is approved by the Holy Quran is through wisdom, reasoning and philosophy, which is more complete than the way based on heart or science. In other words, it is more comprehensive than the natural way”.

The content of Imam Sajjad’s statement is this: However hard the describers try to know God through the ways based on heart, science and wisdom, and gain something in this regard, and taste the monotheism which is discussed in the Holy Quran, but since their wisdom and heart are limited, they may not describe the Sacred Being who is Eternal, Apparent, Hidden, Knowing, Aware and Seeing.

Most scholars of religion, however, have used the above three techniques and have been inspired by the Holy Quran, the Prophet and the Infallible Ones (s) and have in this way understood the content of the above verses and have given us good books on monotheism. However, all these scholars have, in their lofty books, confessed to their inability to recognize God, fully.

Tabarsi, in his Ehtejaj, reports from Imam Ali (s):

دَليلُهُ آياتُهُ، و وُجُودُهُ إثباتُهُ، وَ مَعْرِفَتُهُ تَوْحيدُهُ، وَ تَوْحِيدُهُ تَمْييزُهُ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ، وَ حُكْمُ التَّمْييزِ بَيْنُونَهُ صِِفَة لا بَيْنُونَهُ عُزْلَةٍ، إنَّهُ رَبٌّ خَالِقٌ، غَيْرُ مَرْبُوبٍ مَخْلُوقٍ، كُلُّ ما تُصُوِّرَ فَهُوَ بِخِلافِهِ.

His indicator is his verses; His Existence is His existence. His recognition is to consider Him Unique. When we say He is Unique, we say He is separate from His creatures; this separation rests on the separation of Attributes and not in Entity so that His Being would be finite. This is because He is the Creator, not the created. Whatever you conceive of God, it is not God.

When we consider the last sentence we will realize how weak the describers are in describing Allah. Sentences like the above are frequently found in the statements of the prophets and the Infallible Ones (s), especially in those of Imam Ali (s), statements which no philosopher has ever uttered. The Sacred Being of Allah is loftier than could be described in words.

The great philosopher, Allameh Tabatabaee, adds at the end of this sermon: The signs which indicate the Existence of the Creator are nothing compared with the Creator.

Imam Ali (s), seven day after the demise of the prophet (s), uttered a sermon on the first part of which he talked on monotheism:

الحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذي أعْجَزَ الأوهَامَ أنْ تَنْالَ إلا وُجُودَهُ، وَ حَجَبَ العُقُولَ عَنْ أنْ تَتَخَيَّلَ ذاتَهُ في امْتِناعِها مِنَ الشَّبَهِ وَ الشَّكْلِ، بَلْ هُوَ الَّذي لَمْ يَتَفاوَتْ في ذاتِهِ، وَ لَمْ يَتَبَعَّضْ بِتَجْزِئَةِ الْعَدَدِ في كَمالِهِ، فارَقَ الأشْياءَ لا عَلَى اخْتِلافِ الأماكِنِ، وَ تَمَكَّنَ مِنْها لا عَلَى الْمُمَازَجَةِ، وَ عَلِمَها لا بِأداةٍ لا يَكُونُ العِلْمُ إلا بِها، وَ لَيسَ بَيْنَهُ وَ بَينَ مَعْلُومِهِ عِلْمٌ غَيْرُهُ. إن قِيلَ: (كانَ) فَعَلى أزَلِيِّةِ الوُجُودِ، وَ إنْ قِيلَ: (لَمْ يَزَلْ) فَعَلى تَأويلِ نَفْي العَدَمِ، فَسُبحانَهُ وَ تَعالى عَنْ قَولِ مَنْ عَبَدَ سِواهُ، وَ اتَّخَذَ إلهاً غَيْرَهُ عُلُوّاً كَبيراً.

The whole topic is on Divine philosophy, on reasoning. It is on the path of monotheism with the help of thought and wisdom. A clean heart and a bright thought may grasp the content angle of Allah’s Magnanimity. These sentences are a wavy ocean of knowledge, a treasure of knowledge and insight, and a lamp towards God. In the first and second sentences, Imam Ali (s) says: man’s thought can not reach the depth of the matter.

“Praise be upon the Sacred Being of Allah who has deprived our imagination and wisdom of realizing the truth of Him. This is because He does not fit any shape or associate. He is separate from things not because of the material distance, and has dominated over things. He is the science and knowledge about Himself. If we say God was, the antecedent is eternal, and if we say He will never vanquish, we have negated the non – existence of Him. Therefore, He is loftier than the one they have worshipped.”

Allameh Tabatabaee, in describing the above sentences, says: in these sentences three philosophical issues are discussed:

Firstly, in understanding and knowing Allah our mental images are not at work and He is independent of our miages:

عَجَزَتْ عَنْ نَعْتِهِ أوْهامُ الوَاصِفينَ.

It is because our mind and images can not deal with Him. There is nothing for us except humbleness to offer.

Secondly, His knowledge on things is based on the entity of things, not on their images.

Thirdly, His antecedence and priority over things is not Time priority; rather, it is Absolute.

The first issue is based on the Absolute Uniqueness of Allah and the second issue is based on the Absolute Existence of Allah and the third issue is based on the Absolute infinity of God.

Ze’leb of Yemen said to Imam Ali (s): Have you seen your God?

Imam Ali (s) answered: Woe be on you. It would be impossible for me to worship Him if I had not seen Him. He asked: How? Imam Ali (s) answered: O Ze’leb, Allah may not be seen through sense eyes, but hearts have seen Him through Faith.

My God has got the most delicate meaning of delicacy; therefore He is not to be described through the ordinary meaning of kindness. He is the Greatest, but He can not be described whith the ordinary meaning of “great” as we conceive it. He is the most Glorious, but he may not be defined by our concept of glory.

Although it is necessary to make use of Nature, observing His signs and sciences and paying attention to the Islamic knowledge, He may not be described through our limited concepts and percepts. The finite concept may not describe an infinite Being.

Now that we have explained the sentence وَعَجَزَت عَنْ نَعْتِهِ أوْهَامُ الوَاصِفِينَ we may refer to a magnificent narration from Saduq’s excellent book called Touhid:

Mohammad Ibn Abi Omayr, one of the well-known narratorw, says: I went to see Musa Ibn ja’afar (s) and asked him to teach me monotheism. Imam replied: O Aba Ahmad! Concerning monotheism, do not go outside the border which the Holy Quran has set: it will cause your destruction. Be aware that He is Unique; Allah is He on Whom all depends. He begets nobody so He does not have any heirs; nor is He begotten to have associates. He did not select any companion, associate or children. He is alive, not to be dead; He is strong and Mighty, not to lose any of His Might. He is victorious, not to be defeated. He is most Patient, not to be in a hurry. He is Everlasting, not to have any end. He is so Steady as not to get destroyed. He is Constant, not to have any decay. He is Needless, not to require anything. He is Dearest, not to experience any wretchedness. He is Knowing, not to suffer from ignorance. He is Just, not to use tyranny. He is Generous, not to suffer from misery. He is the Being Whom our wisdom may not grasp, Whom our imaginations fail to comprehend. No Place may contain Him. Eyes can not see Him, but He looks all the time at our eyes. He is most Delicate and Knowing. Nothing resembles Him. He is Hearing and Seeing. When three people whisper, He is the fourth one; when fire people whisper, He is the sixth one; this is taken to mean that He is Omnipresent: He is present every where. More or less than this does not make any difference. All the existence is His Presence. He is the First, not to have any antecedenct; He is the Last, nothing coming after Him. He is Old. He will not need the attributes given Him by His creatures.

In describing Him, even if we used what descriptions He, prophets, and the Infallible ones (s) have used, we would still be unable to describe Him as He deserves it. Rather, we should say: O God! You are the One You Have introduced Yourself in the Holy Quran; You are the One Whom the genuine invocations have described. But these are just a small portion of Your Attributes. What we understand from our Islamic knowledge and Heritage is in proportion to our own understanding of You; it does not fit Your Dignity. Since the beginning of our life we have tried through our knowledge, science, wisdom, divine knowledge to describe you as you deserve it, but we have failed. It is because what You possess we lack; what You are, we are not. We have to be content with worshipping You, to be Your humble servants. In this way we may prosper and we may stone the devel of tyranny and adversity away from us.

اِبْتَدَعَ بِقُدْرَتِهِ الْخَلْقَ ابتِداعاً، وَاخْتَرَعَهُم على مِشِيَّتِهِ اخْتِراعاً.

He created the creatures without any previous samples; He made them as He wished, them to be.

In the Holy Quran, the word بديع “Wonderful Originator” has been used twice:

1) In the sacred surah Baqarah (The Cow), the verse 117:

بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَإِذَا قَضَى أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُنْ فَيَكُونُ.

“Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the earth, and when He decrees an affair, He only says to it, Be, so there it is.”

2) And in the sacred surah Anam[The Cattle], the verse lol:

بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَنَّى يَكُونُ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَمْ تَكُنْ لَهُ صَاحِبَةٌ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ.

“Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the Earth! How could He have a son when He has no consort, and He himself created everything, and He is the Knower of all things.”

In the Commentaries of the Holy Quran and narration and in the book on philosophy and lexicon, the word badi’a’ بديع is defined in the following manner bada’: بَدْع means to initiate something with no antecedent. It does not imply bringing forth out of nothing because non-existence is not the base for existence. It simply means: the entity did not exist and the sacred Being who possesses all the Attributes of Perfection created it with no previous sample.

In other words, this marvelous and wonderful drawing of creation is not the same as the painter’s painting in which colors and brushes are used; rather, it is the creator’s Determination which has produced so many strange manifestations of His Glamor.

Osul kafi and the preciouse Commentary of Nur al-Thaqelein report from Imam Baqir (s) who has said:

اِنَّ الله عَزَّوجَلَّ ابْتَدَعَ الأشياءَ كُلَّها بِعِلْمِهِ على غير مِثالٍ كانَ قَبْلَهُ، فَابتَدَعَ السّماوات وَالأرضَ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ قَبلَهُنَّ سماوات ولا أرضُونَ.

The Almighty God created everything with no previous sample; He created these with His Knowledge. He created all the skies and the earths with no precedence.

Sadorl Motea’llehin, whose philosophical reasoning is unique in his well-known Asfar, writes:

وَلَيسَ الإبْداعُ وَالاِنْشاءُ تَرْكِيباً وَلا تأليفاً بَلْ تأسيساً واِخْراجاً مِنَ العَدَم إلى الوجُود.

God’s Creation is not the combining and composing of some existing things; rather, it is the creating of creatures without resort to any previous precedence. In fact, it is the creation of some entity which did not previously exist.

Mirdamad, one of the distinguished Shiite philosophers, says: “By ebdaa’ ابداع is meant the charge out of the definite non-existence into the text of being and steadiness in the eternal world.” Elsewhere he says: “By ebdaa’ ابداع is meant to originate the entity with no precedence based on matter or on Time.”

The phenomenon of creation, its start and, in Imam Sajjad’s words, its initiation and the invention of the world, is among the mysteries which are not resolved up to this juncture of time; that is why we hear different views on this issue from scholars.

What is unanimously agreed upon is the fact that there should be a beginning for this gigantic and vast arena of mysteries which is termed creation. There was a time when nothing of this mysterious event called “creation” was known. There was only God. It was He Who with His Determination decided to create the creatures. There was no precedent or sample around for creation. There was only God. How did creation occur? Nobody knows.

مَا أَشْهَدْتُهُمْ خَلْقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَلَا خَلْقَ أَنفُسِهِمْ وَمَا كُنتُ مُتَّخِذَ الْمُضِلِّينَ عَضُدًا.

“I did not make them witnesses of the creation of the heavens and the earth, not of the creation of their own souls. 18:51”

In the book called “The Beginning and the Death of the Sun,” we will read “The issue of the appearance of matter is beyond the scope of useful research. We should assume the presence of matter and then start delving into the matters of creation.”

What we get from the Holy Quran and strong narrations and from the statements of the scholars is the following: the world was composed of the particles of gas. But how did gases come into being. God knows. Nobody know its secrets.

But in the Holy Quran, we will read:

ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَى السَّمَاءِ وَهِيَ دُخَانٌ فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلْأَرْضِ اِئْتِيَا طَوْعًا أَوْ كَرْهًا قَالَتَا أَتَيْنَا طَائِعِينَ.

“Then He directed Himself to the heaven and it is a vapor, so He said to it and to the earth: Come both, willingly or unwillingly. They both said: we come willingly. 41:11”

But in the narrations, we will read: Imam Ali (s) in the first sermon of Nahjolbalaqa says:

فَرَفَعَهُ في هَواءٍ مُنْفَتِقٍ، وَجَوٍّ مُنْفَهِقٍ، فَسَوّى مِنْهُ سَبْعَ سَماواتٍ...

“Then that foam raised the steam into the immense space and after purifying it, He created the seven skies.”

Imam Ali (s) in the sermon 90 says:

وَناداها بَعدَ إذْ هِيَ دُخانٌ فَالتَحَمَتْ عُرى أشراجها

“Then He ordered the skies whose substance were steam and smoke to put together their split portions”

Beharol Anvar reports in the books called Elalol Sharaye’ and Oyun Akhbar Reza and Khesal that a Syrian man asked Imam Ali (s) about the original matter of the sky of the world. Imam answered: The original matters were gases and water.

The Commentators of Nahjolbalaqa and Imam Ali’s expression have said: without doubt, what Imam Ali (s) meant by “water”, was not the usual water with which we are familiar. It was a liquid substance out of which the heavenly and earthly materials could have been produced.

عَن حَبّةَ العُرنى قالَ: سمعت علياً عليه السلام ذات يَومٍ يْحلِفْ: والذي خَلَقَ السّماء مِنْ دْخانٍ وماء.

Habba Orni says: I heard once Imam Ali (s) was swearing in this way: I swear to God Who created the sky out of gases and water.

Abdollah Ibn Salam asked the Prophet (s): What is the sky created of? He answered: From the foamed wave. He asked: what is the foamed wave? He answered: It is a still, stagnant water which was previously steam and vapor. He replied: you are right, O Mohammad (s).

In the Commentary of Qommi, it is written:

“Then the smoke became frozen by God’s command.”

The matter started from gases which were spread in the space. Then from the concentration of these gases, sodium (or thin fog) was produced.

Dr Gamoff, the professor of Natural sciences of the Washington University, writes: the universe at its beginning was filled with gases in the space. The concentration and the temperature of these gases are beyond our imagination.

The world is filled with Helium, Hydrogen, nitrogen, Argon, CO2. neon, Krypton, and kezenon gases, all of which are ready to serve God.

The astronomical documents indicate the fact that the infinite numbers of stars and the sky and our sun, as well, could not have been permanent. But most probably two milliard years ago they were created out of burning gases which were spread all over the Universe.

The stars at the beginning of their genesis, were globes of thin and cold gases, but later on, due to their concentration they became warmer.

At the dawn of the genesis of the universe the density of stars must have been so thin that they could fill all the space around them. In this way, they produced concentrated gases.

Fifteen centuries ago, in the first sermon of Nahjolbalaqa Imam Ali (s) referred to the movement of the smoke and gases and to their change into the seven skies, in accordance with the latest scientific in formation we have today:

“Then the Almighty God with His new initiation opened up the dark and gloomy atmospheres gradually into bright and thin gases.”

George Gamoff, in his precious book called “One, two, three, the infinite”, writes: Whites Ziker has shown that the particles of the thin dusts which were spread at the places where the planets occupy to day within one hundred million years came together (concentrated) and produced the limited planets we know today.

Sibork in the book “The Elements of the Universe” writes: Our solar system is composed of the gas concentration with which wind movement and the rotation of the planets and the sun is the remnant of the initial spinning movement.

George Gamoff in last chapter of “The Appearance and the Death of the sun”, says: The story of the evolution of the universe starts from the space which was filled with a matter the heat and density of which were unbelievable. And in this matter the change of the nucli of the elements was as easy as the boiling of an egg in the hot water. In this pre-historic kitchen of the universe, the amount of the different elements and their proportion was determined. That is why there are abundant sources of Iron and oxygen and very little amount of gold and silver.

Under immense pressures this concentrated hot gas contracted into matters of heavy density, losing its heat gradually.

At specific phases of this expansion, the gas was cut into regular shapes and sizes, changing into the globe-like substances now present i.e., the stars of today.

On the basis of both Islamic documents and the scientic records which rely on experimentation, we have learned that the original matter of the Universe was a mass of gas or dusts or in the terminology of the Holy Quran “smokes”.

According to the Holy Quran and in accordance with the first sentence of the first invocation of Sahifeh Sajjadieh,

اِبْتَدَعَ بِقُدْرَتِهِ الخَلْقَ اِبْتِداعاً واخْتَرَعَهُم على مَشِتَّتِهِ اِخْتِراعاً.

And also based on reliable scientific views, this matter was dependant upon the Determination of the Almighty God whose power and might on everything is evident and the beautiful word الله represents him elegantly.

The wise scientists and the conscientious scholars who have carefully studied cosmology, advanced mathematics, physics and astronomy are all humble in the presence of Allah and knowingly admit His Existence. Since these scholars have realized that the whole universe is run through mathematical and scientific formulas and rules; they naturally conclude that these pieces of the existence are put next to one another through a wise One, that is Allah. He is the one who has put together the pieces of existence:

ابتَدَعَ بِقُدْرَتِهِ الخَلْقَ ابْتِداعاً ...

For this reason Einstein said:

“There would not exist any foundations or science if we did not believe in the power which manages the universe. This conviction leads us to the scientific discoveries.”

He continues to say: “Without any doubt any precise scientific discussions is based on a religion-like opinion. That convictions is this: the universe is created on the basis of wisdom and this wisdom is understandable by us.”

He used to say, as well:

“The Gnostic sensation is the most elegant and the deepest of all sensations. It is He who implants the seeds of genuine sciences in our hearts. One who is unaware of this sensation, the one who may not get excited by great surprises, and the one who can not get amazed, is a dead person. We should know that there exists something the depth of which is unknown to us. He manifests Himself in the form of the loftiest virtues and in the most amazing elegance. While our senses and skills are limited to comprehend only the simplest forms of these shapes and forms, we should go after this sensation and knowledge in our genuine faith.

In these profound sentences of Einstein, there are three fundamental issues:

1. This Universe is created on the basis of wisdom;

2. Man with all his rational capacities is just bewildered in front of the grandeur of Allah;

3. It would be impossible for anybody to comprehend the deep side of that sacred Being.

It seems as if Einstein had deeply studied the Islamic texts since what he has got through his searches in physics and mathematics and due to his thinking we have them explicit reported in the Holy Quran, in the narrations and in the invocations:

In nearly one thousand occasions, the Holy Quran has invited our wisdom to pay heed to the amazing process of creation so that we may reach the truth that the creation of the Universe is firmly based upon the Determination of the Absolute wisdom and on the Infinite Knowledge.

At the beginning of the second part of Aminollah Invocation, which consists of the most delicate issues, we will read:

اللّهُمَّ اِنَّ قُلُوبَ المُخْبِتِينَ إلَيكَ وَالِهَةٌ.

O God! The hearts of those who are humble in front of Your Grandeur are filled with awe and reverie towards You.

It is written in the Islamic distinguished sources and narrations that it is not advisable to think too much about God’s Entity and Depth since this will only lead to our amazement, awe, reverie and bewilderment.

We should recognize that Clean and Majestic one only through His sacred Names, and Attributes. This will lead us to prosperity both Here and in the Hereafter.

John Alder, one of the great authors of the twentieth century writes in his valuable book called “Believing in God in the Twentieth century”:

“Not only will the principle of the truth of the creation, but also the details of creation, if they are studied carefully, lead us towards the belief in Allah.

For instance, look at the phenomenon of life on the Earth. Where did it come from, and where did it start?

The findings of numerous geologists have shown, beyond doubt, that there had not been any sign of life on the earth for long historical time. The deep layers of the archeological remnants lacked any signs of life. Only upon the upper layers, which have been studied in some centuries ago, did the investigators find the remnants of life. On the other hand, the volcanoes were active and their lava used to cover the surface of the earth, letting the surface of the earth be too hot for life to begin. That extreme heat made life impossible. It took the earth millions of years to cool down and to let creatures come into being. But where did these living creatures come from, anyhow?

To answer the above question, there are three hypotheses: According to the first hypothesis, the origin of life was the earth.

The second hypothesis says that life started automatically, without any external agent.

According to a third hypothesis life was created by the Eternal Initiator or Allah.

The first hypothesis is rejected on the basis of the fact that it is against all criteria and principles of nature. At every phase of the world of creation, an entity could create something, but that something may not create the originator. For instance, a carpenter creates a table, a man brings about a child, or a bird can create a nest; but the reverse is not true: A table may not create a carpenter, a child may not create a man, nor does a nest create a bird. Although the creation of life by a super might is in accordance with the laws and principles of nature, the creation of higher layers of life by materials which lack action and reaction power such as earth and stones is completely irrational. Furthermore, the features of the things which lacked the power of action and interaction have been studied by researchers. In none of them could the investigators find any sign of life.

This will lead us to the second hypothesis according to which life came into being automatically. Well-known researchers have concluded that life could not have been existent in this manner. Life could bring about life.

Then we will come to the third and the last hypothesis: Where did life come from and who is the creator? We mentioned above that life could not have been created automatically; neither was it created by material items. There is only one hypothesis in front of us: life was brought about by a Higher, and Invisible Creator Who is all around us and everywhere. This Initiator is called Allah.

When we observe that life as such is invisible, it will not be hard to imagine that the creator or initiator of life is Invisible, as well.

We could see living thing, but not their life. In the same way, when a person is dying we can not see his soul coming out of his body. His body, five minutes before death, is like his body five minutes after his death. Nevertheless, we are aware that his life has left. We are aware that his life has left him. So this is a right assumption: as the life itself is invisible, so is its creator.”

It would be needless to explain more than this. We are aware that the Islamic sources, especially the Holy Quran, say that the initial substance of creation was an immense mass of gases and millions of years of changes in these gases led to the creation of this mysterious and bewildering act of creation, which took place in accordance with the principles of logic and most systematically, was the sacred Being of Allah, the Almighty, who is well introduced through the endeavors of the Prophets, the Infallible ones (s), the great Islamic Gnostics and the heavenly bibles, especially the Holy Quran. They all have revealed Allah’s commands which will make man to prosper.

The callosities which appear on the forehead due to too much involvement in prostration.

Manaqeb, Ibn Shahr Ashub, Vol 4,P 167.

Flight in the kingdom of Heaven, Vol 1, P 258

Behar, Vol 46, P 6.

Manaqeb, Ibn Shahr Ashub, Vol 4, P 165.

Manaqeb, Ibn Shahr Ashub, Vol 4, P 150.

Manaqeb, vol 4, p 148

Manaqeb, vol 4, p 159 .

Manaqeb, vol 4, p 159 .

OP Cit.

Kafi vol 2, p 602

introduction to Jamis collection of poetry p 201

William James, mental ease and religion, party summarized

Behar, vol 3, p 67

Islam and Human Ideas

The principles of philosophy and the method of realism, vol 5, p 35.

Kashfol Qamme, vol 2, p 330

Tafsir kabir, vol 1, p 223

Behar, vol, 93, p 20 q

op cit

Behar, vol, 93, p 20 q

Meshkat Al-Anvar, P 27

Ma'ani Al-Akhbar, P 12.

Nahjolbalasqa, translated by Javad Fazel, P3 (with some corrections).

Nahjolbalasqa, translated by Javad Fazel No.14, P115.

Nurol Thaqalein, Vol 1, P 262.

Touhid, P 109, Hadith 6.

Almizan, Vol 8, Arabic Version, and Vol 8, P 338 the Persian Version.

Touhid Saduq, P73.

Shaykh al-Saduq: al-Tawhid, P 76.

Nur al-Thaqelein, Vol 1, P 100.

The Dictionary of rational sciences, P 5.

Behar, Vol 58, P 88.

Op Cit, P 104.

Islam and Astronomy, P 260.

The Appearance and Death of the sun.

"Quran and Nature" reported from Alnojum Fi Maselekaha.

Nur Danesh, P 37.

The story of the Earth, P 2.

The Appearance and the Death of the sun, P 188.

One, two, three, the Infinite, P 323.

The Elements of the Universe, P 178.

The Appearance and the Death of the sun, P 224

The way to perfection, Vol 2, P 118.

Believing in God in the twentieth century, P 16.


source : THE LAND OF THE LOVERS /BY Shaykh Husayn Ansariyan
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