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Tuesday 25th of June 2019
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Deprived of Divine Rewards (Sawaab)

He who commits a minor sin is deprived of the Sawaab, he would have deserved, had he abstained from it. Also every sinful act has some evil repercussion or the other; so it happens that one who repeatedly commits minor sins slowly becomes susceptible to the Greater ones. On the other hand, he who refrains from such acts becomes the recipient of Allah's blessings. Besides he who avoids Greater Sins has his minor sins spontaneously forgiven. Thus one who persists in minor sins will be doubly unfortunate. He will not derive the Sawaab that is reserved for avoiding these sins -and secondly he will be disqualified from Allah's forgiveness for these sins.

This idea has been presented in the following tradition from the Masoom (a.s.):
"May Allah forgive the sins of the sinners. These people have surely been deprived of the sawab of good deeds."

It is Necessary to Refer to the Holy Ahlul Bayt (a.s.)

It may be mentioned here that another subject also dealt with briefly in the Quran but elaborated by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and the Imams (a.s.) concerns the absolute authority of the Ahlul Bayt (a.s.) as the representatives of Allah upon the Earth, to teach and demonstrate to mankind the laws of Allah about the right and the wrong.

Allah the Almighty Himself says:
"And We have revealed to you the Reminder that you may make clear to men what has been revealed to them, and that haply they may reflect."
(Surah Nahl 16:44)

Allah makes it obligatory for the people to refer to the Ahlul Bayt (a.s.). He orders in the Holy Quran:
"So ask the followers of the Reminder if you do not know."
(Surah Nahl 16:43)

How the Ahlul Bayt (a.s.) are the People of Remembrance (Ahle Zikr)

Numerous traditions have reached us which explicitly state that the 'Ahle Zikr' mentioned in the Quran are the Holy Ahle Bayt (a.s.). One such tradition is the statement of Imam Reza (a.s.) in the court of Mamun:
"We are Ahle Zikr."

Sunni scholars present at the meeting objected to this statement and maintained that Ahle Zikr in the Quran means the Christain and the Jews; and Zikr refers to the Injeel (Bible) and Taurat (Torah). Imam Reza (a.s.) replied:
"Glory be to Allah! How is it possible? How could Allah command the Muslims to refer to the Christians and the Jewish Scholars? If we refer to them they will consider their religion to be the true one and better than Islam, and will invite us to their point of view. Will you accept this invitation?"
(Oyoon-e-Akhbaare Reza).

Mamun interjected, "Can you support your claim with the Quranic proof?" The Imam said,
"Yes, Zikr means the Holy Prophet and we are his people (Ahl). To prove my point I quote the following ayat:
"O (those) who believe! Allah has indeed revealed to you a reminder (zikr), an apostle who recites to you the clear communications of Allah."
(Surah Talaq 65:10-11).

Shahristani a Sunni scholar has reported that Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (a.s.) and Hazrat Ali (a.s.) said:
"We are the People of remembrance (Ahle Zikr)".

Another argument is that since Allah has mentioned only in brief many of the important subjects in Quran, He must have appointed a point of reference for the guidance of the people, which would provide a detailed explanation to the subject. And this reference point is undoubtedly the Progeny of Muhammad (Aale Muhammad) in whom Allah has reposed His Knowledge and His secrets, not known to any of His other creatures. Those who desire knowledge and truth will forever be dependent on Ahlul Bayt (a.s.) and remain attached to them with love and devotion. And this devotion for the Ahlul Bayt itself is a blessing, which fetches Allah's rewards and Mercy.

Reply to the Second Objection

From the traditions of the Pure Imams (a.s.) it is clear that they are not in favour of mentioning the exact number of Greater Sins, nor do they describe in detail the Greater Sins. Although time and again they do indicate the method of determining whether an act is a Greater Sin or not is exemplified by the already quoted tradition from Imam as-Sadiq (a.s.):
"The Greater Sins are those (sins) the doer of (those who commit them) are promised the fire of Hell by Allah."

The reason for the Imam (a.s.) not to be specific is the same as stated above in the reply to the First objection.

Some of the Greater Sins are Included in Others

The Ahlul Bayt (a.s.) did not specify some of the sins because they come under a broad classification of a sin they have stated to be a Greater one. Hence they are not mentioned separately. Abeed bin Zorara relates from Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (a.s.) that he said:
"The Greater Sins as mentioned in the book of Ali (a.s.) are seven:
1) To disbelieve in the existence of Allah.
2) To kill a believer wrongfully.
3) To disobey parents
4) Accepting usury when it is clear (obvious).
5) To wrongfully acquire any property belonging to orphans.
6) To flee from the battlefield in Jihad.
7) Reverting to disbelief after accepting Islam.

The narrator asked, "Are all these the Greater types of sins? "Yes", The Imam (a.s.) replied. Then asked the narrator, "Which is the Greater sin, acquiring of a single Dirham (silver coin) from an orphan forcefully or neglecting prayers?" Imam (a.s.) replied,
"Neglecting prayers is comparatively a Greater sin."

"Why did you not include the neglecting of prayers among the Greater Sins?" In reply Imam (a.s.) asked,
"What was the first Greater sin that I mentioned?" Disbelief in Allah."

He said,
"The leaving of the prayers unattended is the same as disbelief."

Hence he had not mentioned the neglecting of prayers as a separate Greater sin.
(Wasaaelush Shia).

It is clear from the foregoing discussion that there is no tradition from the Masoomeen (a.s.) which limits the number of Greater Sins. Hence we can say that none of the traditions are fully comprehensive in listing the total number of Greater Sins.

However if we study the Sahifa of Abdul Azeem Hasani carefully we can conclude that in the tradition related by Umroo bin Abeed, Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (a.s.) has told about twenty one Greater Sins from the Holy Qur'an. Umroo ibn Abeed left the Imam's assembly suddenly. Had he listened more patiently the Imam might have proceeded on the subject and enlightened him further.

I would like to inform the readers that I have explained in detail only those sins, which are the confirmed Greater ones. However it does not mean that all those sins which are not mentioned in this book are not Greater. Rather those sins, which are not established as the Greater ones are mentioned briefly. It is not even confirmed that these are among the lesser sins. Hence pious people should exercise precaution and abstain even from these sins. There is always a possibility that the sin which we think to be small maybe a Greater one. We would be deceived only because its seriousness is not proved to us. We will now proceed towards the detailed explanation of the various sins that are confirmed as Greater Sins.


source : GREATER SINS\Shaheede Mehraab Ayatullah-ul-Uzma Al-Haaj Sayed Abdul Husain Dastghaib Shirazi (r.a.)
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